Anthropology Study Guide

Anthropology Study Guide - Anthropology Study Guide-The...

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Anthropology Study Guide -The first stone tools were made 2.6 million years ago in East Africa. -Beginning 2.5 million years ago, sites in East Africa provide evidence of early Hominids and the genus Homo is made. The early Homo dates to at least 2.4 million years ago. -After 2 million years ago, two different forms of Homo called Homo habilis (australopithecine sized bodies with larger brains that are 600ml and smaller teeth). -Of the two Homos habilis may actually be two different species, habilis is smaller and the larger species is called Homo rudolfensis. Together, all the fossils of the species are called habilines. -Other form of Homo is Homo erectus had the largest body and brain of all the habilines. They had thicker skulls, protruding brow ridges and nuchal tori, projecting noses, and several other distinctive characteristics. -An important adaptation was the growth in brain size from australopithecines to Homo habilis, and the growth in body size from Homo habilis to Homo erectus. -Early Homo ate a richer diet including meat. They had larger home ranges than australopithecines and colonized broader areas including grassland, and had more efficient walking and running without climbing. -Early Homo also had different social systems than earlier hominids. They may have had larger groups, more interaction between different groups, and more cooperative feeding strategies. -Homo erectus had a low level of sexual dimorphism possibly meaning that hunting and gathering, with a different sex occupying each role, could have emerged. Women were gatherers and men were hunters. -By 1.8 million years ago, early Homo emerged from Africa and spread across Asia. This early, remains have been found in the Republic of Georgia and Java. Remains
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were found in Israel by 1.4 million years ago. Remains were found in China 1.2 million years ago. Remains were found in Western Europe 800,000 years ago. -ALL forms of early Homo lived alongside australopithecines in Africa, until both the australopithecines and habilines became extinct about 1.5 million years ago. -After these extinctions, Homo erectus and its descendants were the only remaining hominids. -By the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, 780,000 years ago, early human populations could be distinguished between each other by anatomical features. -The early stone tools were used to process animal carcasses. -The four major anatomical changes present in humans that represent adaptive differences are 1.expansion of the brain 2.changing dental functions with smaller molars 3.thickening of the vault 4. Increase in body size -The Dmanisi early humans were intermediate in body size between African Homo erectus and australopithecines. -Early African humans were twice the size of female australopithecines.
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Anthropology Study Guide - Anthropology Study Guide-The...

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