General Anesthetics. lec 6.pdf - General Anesthetics Dr Mamuna Naz Overview General anesthesia is a reversible state of central nervous system(CNS

General Anesthetics. lec 6.pdf - General Anesthetics Dr...

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General Anesthetics Dr. Mamuna Naz
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Overview General anesthesia is a reversible state of central nervous system (CNS) depression, causing loss of response to and perception of stimuli. For patients undergoing surgical or medical procedures, anesthesia provides five important benefits: • Sedation and reduced anxiety • Lack of awareness and amnesia • Skeletal muscle relaxation • Suppression of undesirable reflexes Analgesia Because no single agent provides all desirable properties, several categories of drugs are combined to produce optimal anesthesia
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Pre-anaesthetic medications Preanesthetic medications serve to calm the patient, relieve pain, protect against undesirable effects of the subsequently administered anesthetics or the surgical procedure. facilitate smooth induction of anesthesia, lowered the required dose of anesthetic Preanesthetic Medicine: Benzodiazepines; midazolam or diazepam : Anxiolysis & amnesia. barbiturates; pentobarbital : sedation Diphenhydramine : Prevention of allergic reactions: Antihistamines : H2 receptor blocker- famotidine, ranitidine: Reduce gastric acidity.
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Pre-anaesthetic medications Antiemetics - ondansetron: Prevents aspiration of stomach contents and post surgical vomiting: acetaminophen, celecoxib or opioids (fentanyl) for analgesia Anticholinergics : (glycopyrrolate, scopolamine): Amnesia Reduce bronchial and salivary secretion: Reduce any tendency to bronchospasm Prevent bradycardia and hypotension:
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PATIENT FACTORS IN SELECTION OF ANESTHESIA Drugs are chosen to provide safe and efficient anesthesia based on the type of procedure and patient characteristics such as organ function, medical conditions, and concurrent medications. Status of organ systems Cardiovascular system: Respiratory system: Liver and kidney Nervous system Pregnancy
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Anesthesia events Practically stages of anesthesia 1. Induction: 2. Maintenance: 3. Recovery:
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Stages and depth of anesthesia/ STAGE 1- INDUCTION Extends from the administration of anesthesia to the time of loss of consciousness. Pain is progressively abolished during this stage. Patient remains conscious, can hear and see, and feels a dream like state.
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