Chapter Four Egyptian Civilization.docx

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Chapter Four Egyptian Civilization
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Glossary Lesson One Delta- triangular piece of rich land formed from soil deposited at the mouth of some rivers Cataracts- waterfalls Arid- dry desert Predict- tell in advance Afterlife- life after death Lesson Two Diplomacy- relations between countries Nation-state- region with united people and single government Vizier- chief advisor Hieroglyphs- picture symbols Papyrus- paper-like material Pyramids- structures that served as tombs for Egyptian rulers Mummy- preserved body Lesson Three Civil war- war between two groups in the same place Famines- food shortages Cost-benefit analysis- to decide whether to carry out trade Lesson Four Pharaoh- Egyptians believed they had flesh of gold and were part king part god
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Reign- time of rule Rural- country
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- Lesson One the Nile Valley - Nile river longest river in world - Runs between desert cliffs in series of six cataracts - Cuts across arid Controlling the river - Nile was “giver of life” - First built ditches then dams and dikes A source of Religion - Could not always predict when flood would come - Created stories to explain events in nature - Created polytheistic religion - One most important god was sun god Ra - Believed sun was born each day died each life - This led to afterlife - Important god flood god Hapi Toward civilization - Built temples and stone tombs marked with writing - Made pottery mined copper for tools and gold for décor and art Lesson Two the Old Kingdom
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