Chapter Eight Volcanoes.docx

Chapter Eight Volcanoes.docx - Chapter Eight Volcanoes...

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Chapter Eight Volcanoes
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Vocabulary Magma-hot liquid material that is the driving force that creates volcanoes Vent-holes in the earth’s crust Pyroclastic Material-magma and fragments of rock that are blasted into the air during violent eruptions Lava-magma on the Earth’s surface Volcano-vent(s) with buildup of lave or pyroclastic material on the Earth’s surface Shield Volcano-built of layers of lave from repeated non explosive eruptions, because lave is very runny spreads over wide area, over time these layers create a volcano, this type has sloping sides, sides are not very steep but volcanoes can be giant,: Mauna Kea in Hawaii is largest mountain on earth it’s taller than Mount Everest Cinder cone volcano-small volcanic cones, made of pyroclastic material from moderately explosive eruptions, pyroclastic material forms steeper slopes with narrower base than shield, usually erupt for only short time, often occur in clusters commonly on sides of other volcano types, erode quickly because pyroclastic particles are not cemented together by lava: Paricutin in Mexico Composite volcano-sometimes called stratovolcanoes, one of most common types of volcanoes, form by explosive eruptions of pyroclastic material and outpourings of lava, have alternating layers of pyroclastic material and lava, broad bases and sides that get steeper toward the summit: Mount Fuji in Japan Crater- at top of central vent in most volcanoes is funnel shaped pot called crater, also formed by meteorite impacts, its funnel results from explosions of material out of vent also collapse of material from craters rim back into vent Caldera-forms when magma chamber empties and roof collapses, causes ground to sink leaving large circular depression, generally much larger than craters Rift- a deep crack Hot spot-places within tectonic plates which are directly above mantle plumes which are columns of rising magma that begins deep in earth maybe between mantle and core
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Section One Non-explosive eruptions - Lava flows which are rivers of red hot lava come from these types of eruptions - They are usually calm and can release huge amount of molten rock - Sometimes non explosive can spray lava into air - Most of lava falls back to ground while still molten Explosive Eruptions - Clouds of hot debris and gases shoot out from volcano - Molten rock is blown into a million pieces that harden in air -
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  • Fall '14
  • Mr. Rude
  • Volcano, Ash, pillow lava, lava plateau, blocky lava

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