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Anthropology Midterm Exam ReviewTermsCulture:a keyword for anthropologists that represents a holistic, integrated andcomparative approach to human difference- “the system of meanings about the nature of experience that are shared by a people andpassed on from one generation to another…” (p.9)-‘culture’ is a term that helps us to think about how and why there aredifferent meanings attached to common life events and practicesEthnocentrism:the tendency to judge the behaviours or beliefs of other cultures from theperspective of one’s own cultureethnocentric fallacy:The mistaken notion that the beliefs and behaviours of other cultures canbe judged from the perspective of one’s own culture.cultural relativism:The attempt to understand the beliefs and behaviours of other cultures interms of the culture in which they are found; So, every culture or tradition has to be understoodon its own terms;relativistic fallacy:The idea that it is impossible to make moral judgement about the beliefsand behaviours of members of other cultures.armchair anthropology:refers to late 19th century and early 20th century scholars coming toconclusions without going through the usual anthropology motions--fieldwork or labwork.Theywould sift through artefacts from colonists, missionaries and then draw conclusions using, often,their imagination.participant observation:An element of fieldwork that can involve participating in daily tasks,and observing daily interactions among a particular group.ethnographic fieldwork:A research method in which sociocultutral anthropologists haveintense, long-teerm engagements with a group of people. It may involve the use of bothqualitative and quantitative methods, including interviews, participant observation, and survey-based research.Ethnography:A written description and analysis of a particular group of people, usually basedupon anthropological fieldwork.socio-cultural anthropology:A comparative approach to the study of societies and culturesthat focuses on differences and similarities in the ways that societies are structured and culturalmeanings are created.applied anthropology:Refers to the application of the method and theory of anthropology tothe analysis and solution of practical problems. Uses the theories, methods, and ethnographicfindings of anthropology to solve human problems.social identity:The view that people have of their own and others’ positions in society. Theselearned personal and social affiliations may include gender, sexuality, race, class, nationalism,and ethnicity. Individuals seek confirmation from others that they occupy the positions on thesocial landscape that they claim to occupy.
Enculturation:The process through which individuals learn an identity. It can encompassparental socialization, the influence of peers, the mass media, government, asnd other forces.egocentric society:Each person is seen to be a separate entity with characteristics that