Coleman Report 1966.pdf - R E P O R T R E S U M E S ED 012 275 UD 002 122 EQUALITY OF EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY COLEMAN JAMES S AND OTHERS NATIONAL CENTER

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Unformatted text preview: R E P O R T R E S U M E S ED 012 275 UD 002 122 EQUALITY OF EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY. COLEMAN, JAMES S. AND OTHERS NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS (DHEW) REPORT NUMBER 0E-36001 PUB DATE EDRS PRICE mr-4000, HC mom 2. ig -mog 30 3-6 6 6 7404- DESCRIPiuRS- *NEGROES, *ETHNIC GROUPS, *PUBLIC SCHOOLS, *EQUAL EDUCATION, *SCHOOL SEGREGATION, Ck.L.:ASIAN STUDENTS, TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS, STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, SCHOOL INTEGRATION, ACHIEVEMENT, SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT, EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES, HIGHER EDUCATION, STUDENT ENROLLMENT, ACHIEVEMENT TESTS, TABLES (DATA), MOTIVATION, RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, EDUCATIONAL POLICY, NEGRO TEACHERS THE PRODUCT OF AN EXTENSIVE SURVEY REQUESTED DY THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, THIS REPORT DOCUMENTS THE AVAILABILITY OF EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS FOR MINORITY GROUP NEGROES, PUERTO RICANS, MEXICAN-AMERICANS, ORIENTAL-AMERICANS, AND AMERICAN INDIANS, AS COMPARED WITH OPPORTUNITIES FOR MAJORITY GROUP WHITES. COMPARATIVE ESTIMATES ARE MADE ON A REGIONAL AS WELL AS ON A NATIONAL BASIS. SPECIFICALLY, THE REPORT DETAILS THE DEGREE OF SEGREGATION OF MINORITY GROUP PUPILS AND TEACHERS IN THE SCHOOLS AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENTS' ACHIEVEMENT, AS MEASURED.BY ACHIEVEMENT TESTS, AND THE KINDS OF SCHOOLS THEY ATTEND. EDUCATIONAL QUALITY IS ASSESSED IN TERMS OF CURRICULUMS OFFERED, SCHOOL FACILITIES SUCH AS TEXTBOOKS; LABORATORIES, AND LIBRARIES, SUCH ACADEMIC PRACTICES AS TESTING FOR APTITUDE AND ACHIEVEMENT, AND THE PERSONAL, SOCIAL, AND ACADEMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TEACHERS AND THE STUDENT BODIES IN THE SCHOOLS. ALSO IN THE REPORT IS A DISCUSSION OF FUTURE TEACHERS OF MINORITY GROUP CHILDREN, CASE STUDIES OF SCHOOL INTEGRATION, AND SECTIONS ON HIGHER EDUCATION OF MINORITIES AND SCHOOL NONENROLLMENT RATES. INFORMATION RELEVANT TO THE SURVEY'S RESEARCH PROCEDURES IS APPENDED. NOTABLE AMONG THE FINDINGS ON THE SURVEY ARE THAT NEGRO STUDENTS AND TEACHERS ARE LARGELY AND UNEQUALLY SEGREGATED FROM THEIR WHITE COUNTERPARTS, AND THAT THE AVERAGE MINORITY PUPIL ACHIEVES LESS AND IS MORE AFFECTED DY THE QUALITY OF HIS SCHOOL THAN THE AVERAGE WHITE PUPIL. THIS DOCUMENT TS ALSO AVAILABLE FROM THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS, U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, WASHINGTON, D.C. 20402, FOR $4.25. (AH) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION & WELFARE OFFICE OF EDUCATION THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN REPRODUCED EXACTLY AS RECEIVED FROM THE . PERSON OR ORGANIZATION ORIGINATING IT. POINTS OF VIEW OR OPINIONS STATED DO NOT NECESSARILY REPRESENT OFFICIAL OFFICE OF EDUCATION POSITION OR POLICY. MALTY EDUCATION L PP EMT? 0E -38001 EQUAL:TY OF EDUCATION CPPCrUITTY By James S. Coleman, Johns Hopkins University and Ernest Q. Campbell, Vanderbilt University Carol J. Hobson, U.S. Office of Education James McPartland, U.S. Office of Education Alexander M. Mood, U.S. Office of Education Frederic D. Weinfeld, U.S. Office of Education Robert L. York, U.S. Office of Education WELFARE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND John W. Gardner, Secretary OFFICE OF EDUCATION, Harold Howe II, Commissioner rTVC.197:drn jf Section I of this report was issued previously as a slightly different Summary A publication of the NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS A. M. MOOD, Assistant Commissioner F. O. Nessurre, Deputy Assistant Commissioner Superintendent of Documents Catalog No. FS 5.238:38001 U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 1966 For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 Price $4.25 -7777.4rwiPFTrw- THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES THE PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE THE SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE The attached report is submitted in response to Section 402 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964: the President SEC. 402. The Commissioner shall conduct a survey and make a report to concerning the lack of of the enactment of this title, and the Congress, within two years availability of equal educational opportunities for individuals by reason of race, color, all levels in the United States, religion, or national origin in public educational iastitutions at its territories and possessions, and the District of Columbia. The survey requested it this legislation has been conducted. Its major For findings will be found in brief form in the summary section of this report. those desiring more detailed iuformation, a comprehensive presentation is provided in the eight sections of the full report. The full report also describes in detail the survey design and procedures and the types of tests used; it contains copies of the questionnaires administered to superintendents, principals, teachers, and students as part of the study. In carrying out the survey, attention was paid to six racial and ethnic living groups: Negroes, American Indians, Oriental Americans, Puerto Ricans in the continental United States, Mexican Americans, and whites other than Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans often called "majority" or simply "white." These terms of identification are not used in the anthropological identify sense, but reflect social categories by which people in the United States themselves and are identified by others. Stated in broadest terms, the survey addressed itself to four major questions. The first is the extent to which the racial and ethnic groups are segregated from one another in the public schools. The second question is whether the schools offer equal educational opportunities in terms of a number of other criteria which are regarded as good indicators of educational quality. The attempt to ar,,,wer this elusive question involves describing many characteristics of the schools. Some of these are tangible, such as numbers of laboratories, textbooks, libraries, and the like. Some have to do with the curriculums offered academic, commercial, vocational and with academic practices such as the administering of aptitude and achievement tests and "tracking" by presumed ability. Other of these aspects are less tangible. They include the characteristics of the teachers found in the schoolssuch things as their education, amount of teaching experience, salary level, verbal ability, and indications of assessed, so far attitudes. The characteristics of the student bodies are also descriptions as is possible within the framework of the study, so that some rough can be made of the socioeconomic backgrounds of the students, the education of their parents, and the attitudes the pupils have toward themselves and their ability to affect their own destinies, as well as their academic aspirations. iii Only partial information about equality or inequality of opportunity for education can be obtained by looking at the above characteristics, which might be termed the schools' input. It is necessary to look also at their outputthe results they produce. The third major question, ichen, is addressed to how much the students learn as measured by their performance on standardized achievement tests. Fourth is the attempt to discern possible relationships between students' achievement, on the one hand, and the kinds of schools they attend on the other. My staff members and the consultants who have assisted them on this project do not regard the survey findings as the last word on the lack of equal educational opportunities in the United States. But they do believe that sufficient care has gone into this survey and into the interpretation of its results to make the findings useful to those who are concerned with public education in the United States. The report does not include any recommendations of what policies or programs should be mounted by Federal, State, or local government agencies in order to improve educational opportunity in the light of the findings. In the months ahead, the U.S. Office of Education will use its own staff and seek the help of advisors to determine how it can use the results of the survey to enhance the educational opportunities of all citizens of the United States. W. encourage other public and private groups to do likewise, and we will gladly cooperate with others who are seeking constructive courses of action based on the survey reported here. HAROLD HOWE II, U.S. Commissioner of Education. JULY 2, 1966. Contents Page Letter of transmittal The survey 1.0 Summary report Segregation in the public schools The schools and their characteristics Achievement in the public schools 1.4 Relation of achievement to school characteristics 1.5 Other surveys and studies School environment 2.1 Overview 2.2 School facilities, services, and curriculums 2.3 Characteristics of staff 2.4 Characteristics of fellow students 2.5 The metropolitan North and West 2.6 The metropolitan South 2.7 The nonmetropolitan South 2.8 Other minorities 2.9 The outlying territories Pupil achievement and motivation 3.1 Outcomes of schooling 3.2 Relation of school factors to achievement 3.3 Integration and achievement _ Future teachers of minority groups Higher education 5.1 General description of data 5.2 Tabular presentation of data 5.3 Variations in colleges by proportion Negro in student body 5.4 Proportions awarding earned doctorate, budgeting for organized research, and housing chapters of AAUP and PBK 5.5 Distribution of minorities by type of institution 1.1 1.2 1.3 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 Nonenrollment 6.1 Nonenrollment as measured by the 1960 census 6.2 Nonenrollment rates of 16- and 17-year-olds in October 1965 6.3 Nonenrollment rates of 14- to 19-year-olds in October 1965 7.0 8.0 Case studies of school integration 7.1 Leek of information 7.2 Performance of minority group children 7.3 Compliance in a small community 7.4 A voluntary transfer plan for racial balance in elementary school 7.5 Desegregation and redistricting at the junior high school level 7.6 A plan for racial balance at the high school level 7.7 Segregation at a vocational school 7.8 Relation of a university to school desegregation Special studies 8.1 Project H eadstart 8.2 Disadvantage associated with foreign language in the home 8.3 Guidance counselors 8.4 Vocational education iii 1 3 3 8 20 21 23 35 36 66 122 183 202 205 209 212 213 217 218 290 330 334 367 368 370 418 437 442 446 447 452 457 460 461 463 467 469 474 480 485 488 490 491 523 529 545 V 9.0 vi Appendixes_.. 9.1 Official correspondence 9.2 Sample design 9.3 Data collection and processing 9.4 Computation of estimates 9.5 Sampling variability 9.6 Response rate 9.7 Reliability of questionnaire responses 9.8 Technical details for the regression analysis 9.9 Survey instruments 9.10 Correlation tables (separately bound) Page 548 549 550 554 558 561 565 568 571 575 !MI=5i-91 The Survey In view of the fundamental significance of edu- cational opportunity to many important social issues today, Congress requested the survey of J Collins, Abraham Frankel, Jacqueline Gleason, Forrest Harrison, Eugene Higgins, Harry Lester, Francis Nassetta, Hazel Poole, Bronson Price, educational opportunity reported in this document. James K. Rocks, Frank L. Schick, Samuel Schloss, The survey is, of course, only one small part of extensive and varied activities which numerous institutions and persons are pursuing in an effort to understand the critical factors relating to the Ivan Seibert, El lease Thompson, Edward Za- education of minority children and hence to build a sound basis for recommendations for improving their education. Probably the main contribution of the survey to this large and long-range effort browski, and Judith Zinter. The Educational Testing Service of Princeton, N.J., was the contractor for the major public school survey under the direction of Rcbert J. Solomon and Joseph L. Boyd. It provided existing published tests for use in the survey and carried out the administration of these tests and of special will be in the fact that for the first time there is questionnaires developed by the Center staff. made avail-Me a comprehensive collection of data gathered on consistent specifications throughout the whole Nation. Some brief analyses of the data have been made Albert E. Beaton of Educational Testing Service conducted the computer analysis in accordance with specifications supplied by the staff of the by the Office of Education in the few months Florida State University was the contractor for the nonenrollment study carried out by Charles Nam, Lewis Rhodes, and Robert Herriott. The Bureau of the Census administered this survey as part of its October 1965 Current Population Survey and processed. the data. Raymond W. Mack of Northwestern University directed the team of sociologists who did the case available since the data were collected in the latter part of 1965. The results of this effort to determine some of the more immediate implications of the data are included in this report. A small staff in the Office of Education will carry out a continuing program of analysis. More importantly, the data will be made available to research workers Center. everywhere so that they can perform their own studies of education for minorities in the 10 analyses and can apply the data to their own American cities. special areas of investigation. The survey was carried out by the National Center for Educational Statistics of the U.S. Office of Education. In addition to its own staff the Center used the services of outside consultants and contractors. James Coleman of Johns Hopkins University had major responsibility for the design, administration, and analysis of the survey. Ernest Campbell of Vanderbilt University shared The members of this team were Troy Duster, Michael Aiken, N. J. Demerath III, Margaret Long, Ruth Simms Hamilton, Herbert R. Barringer, Rosalind J. Dworkin, John Pease, Bonnie Remsberg, and A. G. Dwcrkin. G. W. Foster of the University of Wisconsin directed the team of lawyers who did case studies of the legal and political problems of de facto segregation in seven American cities. The members of this team were William G. Buss, Jr., John E. Coons, this responsibility and particularly had major William Cohen, Ira Michael Heyman, Ralph responsibility for the college surveys. Staff members of the Center assigned full time to the survey were Carol Hobson, James McPartland, Frederic Weinfeld, and Robert York. Staff members as- Phillips Cutright, James Fennessey, Jeanette signed part time to the survey included Gordon Adams, Richard Barr, L. Bischoff, O. Jean Brandes, Keith Brunell, Marjorie Chandler, George Reisner, John Kaplan, and Robert H. Marden. Other persons outside the Office of Education who contributed to the report were David Armor, Hopkins, Nancy Karweit, Jimmer Leonard. John Tukey of Princeton University provided consulting assistance in the design of the regression analysis. 1 An advisory committee assisted in the design of the study and in developing procedures for carrying it out. The committee did not participate in the analysis of the data or the preparation of the final l port. Its members were: James E. Allen, Jr., New York State Com- survey: no attempt will be made to list them here. At the _me time, representatives of a number of organizations were consulted, particularly, Leroy Clark and John W. Davis of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Legal Defense and Educational Fund; and June Shagaloff missioner of Education Anne Anastasi, Fordham University Vincent J. Browne, Howard University Colored People; Carl Rachlin, and Marvin Rich of the Congress of Racial Equality; Max Birn- Benjamin E. Carmichael, Superintendent of Chattanooga Schools John B. Carroll, Harvard University Otis Dudley Duncan, University of Michigan Warren G. Findley, University of Georgia Edmund W. Gordon, Yeshiva University David A. Goslin, Russell Sage Foundation Carl F. Hansen, Superintendent of District of Columbia Public Schools James A. Hazlett, Superintendent of Kansas City Schools Theron A. Johnson, New York State Department of Education Sidney P. Mar land, Superintendent of Pittsburgh Schools James M. Nabrit, President of Howard University Thomas F. Pettigrew, Harvard University Clinton C. Trillingham, Superintendent of Los Angeles County Schools Warren T. White, Superintendent of Dallas Public Schools Stephen J. Wright, University President of Fisk A large number of educators were consulted informally in the early stages of the design of the *Deceased of the National Association for the Advancement of baum, Lawrence Bloomgarden, and Isaiah Terman of the American Jewish Committee; Otis Finley, and Mahlon Puryear of the National Urban League; Harold Braverman of the Anti-Defamation League; Randolph Blackwell of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference; Rudy Ramos of the American G.I. Forum of the United States; Paul M. Deac of the National Confederation of American Ethnic Groups; and Elizabeth R. Cole* of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. By far the largest contribution to the survey resulted from the cooperative support and hard work of many hundreds of school officials at every level of education and almost 20,000 schoolteachers who adminiAered the survey questionnaires in their classrooms throuEhout the Nation. The Office of Education will make all the data gathered by this survey avail able to research workers. It must De done in the form of tabulations or statistics. No in: ormation can be revealed about an individual pupil, teacher, local or State school admi.strator, local or State school system. ALEXANDER M. MOOD, Assistant Commissioner for Educational Statistics. 1.0 Summary Report Segregation in the public schools school in which 65 percent of the teachers are The great majority of American children attend schools that are largely segregatedthat is, where almost all of their fellow students are of the same racial background as they are. Among minority groups, Negroes are by far the most segregated. Taking all groups, however, white children are most segregated. Almost 80 percent of all white pupils in 1st grade and 12th grade attend schools that are from 90 to 100 percent white. And 97 percent at grade 1, and 99 percent at grade 12, attend schools that are 50 percent or more white. For Negro pupils, segregation is more nearly complete in the South (as it is for whites also), but it is extensive also in all the other regions where the Negro population is concentrated: the urban North, Midwest, and West. More than 65 percent of all Negro pupils in the where by trodition it has been complete. On a nationwide basis, in cases where the races of pupils and teachers are not matched, the trend is all in one direction: white teachers teach Negro children but Negro teachers seldom teach white children, just as, in the schools, integration consists primarily of a minority of Negro pupils in 1.1 first grade attend schools that are between 90 and 100 percent Negro. Ard 87 percent at grade 1, and 66 percent at grade 12, attend schools that are 50 percent or more Negro. In the South most students attend schools that are 100 percent white or Negro. The same pattern of segregation holds, though not quite so strongly, for the teachers of Negro and white students. For the Nation as a whole, the average Negro elementary pupil attends a Negro; the average white elementary pupil attends a school in which 97 percent. of the teachers are white. White teachers are more predominant at the secondary level, where the corresponding figures are 59 and 97 percent. The racial matching of teachers is most pronounced in the South, predominantly white schools but almost never of a few whites in largely Negro schools. In its desegregation decision of 1954, the Supreme Court held that separate schools for Negro and white children are inherently unequal. This survey finds that, when measured by that yardstick, American public education remains largely unequal in most regions of the country, including all those where Negroes form any significant proportion of the population. Obviously, however, that is not the only yardstick. The next section of the summary describes other characteristi...
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