Module I.docx - Lecture 1 Anatomy has many sub-disciplines...

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Lecture 1 01/24/2017 ° Anatomy has many sub-disciplines: Gross anatomy: o Regional anatomy: medical profession commonly studies (target specific area of body) o Systemic anatomy: system of the body and the functions of system. Comparing systems between different animals Surface anatomy: study of human body without dissection; from only the surface Microscopic anatomy (histology): study of microscopic structure of tissues. Study on the tissue and cellular level; aka histology Other branches: o Developmental anatomy: t he study of the structural changes of an individual from fertilization to adulthood. o Embryology: study of embryos and their development o Pathological anatomy: morphology of tissues and cells related to disease o Radiographic anatomy: x-Rays; imaging scans o Functional morphology: the function of the structure ° Hierarchy of structural organization: Atomsmoleculearrange into cells-arrange into tissuesorganssystemscombination of all systems makeup the organism Connective tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue, epithelial tissue4 types of tissue Tissue arrange into more specialized organs. Organs arise from multiple tissues. ° integumentary system: forms external body covering ° skeletal system:
support the body organs and provide the framework ° Muscular system: locomotion ° Nervous system: control system involving the brain, spinal cord. ° Endocrine system: hormonal secretion. Long term effect compare to the nervous system ° Cardiovascular system: blood transport and the heart ° Lymphatic system/immunity: this is not covered in this course. ° Respiratory systems: gills vs. lungs ° Digestive system: herbivores vs carnivores ° Urinary system: kidney functions ° Reproductive systems: produce offspring functions ° ° Anatomical position: a common visual reference point The person is at a standing position with palm facing forward. ° Regional terms: Axial region: o Axis of body-head, neck, and trunk Appendicular regions-appendages Pelvic-reproductive organs region Abdominal-digestive tract region Thoracic-chest area Cervical-neck
Cephalic (head) Pubic-genital ° Directional terms: In humans, superior is cephalad o Posterior is dorsal; anterior is ventral In animals, superior is dorsal o Posterior is caudal, anterior is cephalad Dorsal and ventral is different between humans and animals Medial is something on the middle. Lateral is to the side of the body Superficial is something on the surface. Deep is the inside of the body ° Body planes and sections: Frontal plane-divides human front and back (posterior and anterior) Transverse plane-head and tail Sagittal-divides body into right and left parts ° Body cavities and membranes: Vertebral cavity: spinal cord Cranial cavity: brain Ventral body cavity: o Thoracic cavity: divides into three partssuperior mediastinum, pleural cavity, pericardial cavity Serous cavities: o Parietal serosa is the outer wall of the ballon
o Visceral serosa is the part that touches the hand o

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