Modern_israel_part1.docx - CORE-UA 537 Modern Israel Topic...

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CORE-UA 537: Modern Israel Topic 1: Consequences of War of 1948 – 1/23/18 Before 1948 Israel was a territory called Palestine – mandate of Britain Under control of League of Nations, Britain was mandated to encourage independence of Palestine (Israel) – every year Britain was to report to the League of Nations The British ruled in Palestine from end of 1917 – May 1948; 15 th May keys given to Israeli government but don’t leave until August Arabs living in Palestine today are called Palestinians – some texts consider all people living in Palestine (prior to 1948) as Palestinians – Palestinian Jews/Arabs Palestine did not exist as a political unit in the Ottoman empire prior to 1917 – when the British occupied Palestine, population was ~700,000 – mostly Muslim Arabs (some one who speaks Arabic) – Jews make up about 50-70,000 Balfour Declaration: one of diplomatic promises – if Britain won the war they would support the creation of a Jewish national home would be created in Palestine – nothing would be done to the existing population of Palestine, nothing would challenge the citizenship of Jews living in other countries; Jewish home does not mean a state – more than colony, less than independent - Clear victory for Zionists (support Jewish nationalism – returning of Jews to Biblical home and create a political society) - Prior to WWI Zionism arose in Europe and America due to Jewish poverty and anti-Semitism Zionists were a minority in Europe – 5% of Jews supported Zionism – Britain was sympathetic to Zionist movement Britain made many moves similar to that for Balfour Declaration – promised independence to Arabs everywhere else but Palestine In 30 years of British control, Jewish population has multiplied by 10, Arab population doubled – 1.2 million Arabs in Palestine in 1948, Jews grew to 650,000 mostly due to migration The Jewish community of Palestine called itself Yishuv (“those who have settled there”) in 1948 – over the years the Arabs fought against the British and Jews Britain in 1939 said they established a Jewish state but then stopped encouraging the Jewish migration and supported a two nation state – this angered the Jews Jews fought with Britain against Germany – after fought British
In 1947 UN sent commissions of inquiry, Resolution 181 – decided only solution was to divide into two nations – 2/3 majority voted in support of partition – 55% territory given to Jews, rest to Arabs – Arabs reject because they are 2/3 of population and want 2/3 territory Civil war breaks out in Palestine between Arab and Jewish community – Jews were more organized and more desperate – first months of fighting Arabs are winning, Nov 1947 until March of 1948 Arabs were winning Jews organize forces then tide of war shifts – in 8 th of April was fighting just outside of Jerusalem when Jewish forces defeated leader of Arab resistance, just after a massacre in which Jewish killed (controversial) 120 Palestinians – this war created Palestinian refugee issue

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