Exam 2 Study Guide.pdf - Deviance crime(definition and how they relate to each other Deviance behavior that departs from societal or group norms Crime

Exam 2 Study Guide.pdf - Deviance crime(definition and how...

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Deviance & crime (definition and how they relate to each other) Deviance: behavior that departs from societal or group norms Crime: behavior/deviant act that is subject to legal or civil penalties Merton’s typology of deviance (know the coping strategies) Type of Response Cultural Goals Legitimacy of Means Example Conformity Accept Accept A person who wishes to be a teacher and follows the prescribed path that society has laid out for them to reach those goals Innovation Accept Reject Steve jobs and mark zuckerberg took unorthodox path to reach their goals (college dropouts) Ritualism Reject Accept A person may follow accepted means of becoming a teacher, but rejects steps needed to move up career ladder Retreatism Reject Reject Hippie counterculture in 1960s rebuked authority and capitalist ideas Rebellion Reject/Substitute Reject/Substitute Occupy protests of 2001 Opportunity theory, control theory, class-dominant theory (conflict), structural contradiction theory, labeling theory (know the general claim and differences between primary and secondary deviance) differential association & subcultural theory Opportunity theory: people differ not only in their motivations to engage in deviant acts but also in their opportunities to do so Control theory: explains that the probability of delinquency or deviance among children and teenagers is rooted in social control
Class-dominant theory: theories that propose that what is labeled deviant or criminal, and therefore who gets punished, is determined by the interests of the dominant class in a particular culture or society Structural contradiction theory: conflicts generated by fundamental contradictions in the structure of society produce laws defining certain acts as deviant or criminal Labeling theory: deviant behavior is a product of the labels people attach to certain types of behavior Primary deviance: occurs at the moment an activity is labeled as deviant by others Secondary deviance: occurs when a person labeled deviant accepts the label as part of his or her identity and, as a result, begins to act in conformity with the label Differential association theory: deviant and criminal behavior results from regular exposure to attitudes favorable to acting in ways that are deviant or criminal Subculture theory: identify the conflicting interests of different segments of the population Formal and informal social control (know the definition and differences) Formal social control: official attempts to discourage certain behaviors and visibly punish others Most often exercised by societal institutions associated with the state, including the police, prosecutors, courts, and prisons Suppress, reduce, and punish those individuals or groups who engage in criminal forms of deviance Informal social control: the unofficial means through which deviance is discouraged in everyday interaction Governed by informal expectations of which we are all aware and that lead us to make certain choices

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