PSYC 323 Summary (Unit 4).docx - PSYC Summary(UNIT 4...

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PSYC Summary (UNIT 4) Chapter 9 – Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Piaget’s Theory: The Preoperational Stage o P reo perational stage, which spans the years 2 to 7, the most obvious change is an extraordinary increase in representational, or symbolic, activity o Advances in Mental Representation Language is our most flexible means of mental representation Thinking in words: overcomes limits of momentary experiences, deal with the past, present and future at once and combine concepts in a unique way He did not believe it was the primary contributor to cognitive development, that sensorimotor activity leads to internal images of experience what then is labelled by words Ch 6: children’s first words have a strong sensorimotor basis. And toddlers acquire an impressive range of categories long before they use words to label them o Make-Believe Play Through pretending, young children practice and strengthen newly acquired representational schemes Development of Make-Believe (3 changes that reflect the preschool child’s growing symbolic mastery): (1) Play detaches from the real-life conditions associated with it: toddlers use only realistic objects—a toy telephone to talk into or a cup to drink from (early stage is imitation); age 2, children pretend with less realistic toys—for example, a block for a telephone receiver; Gradually, they can flexibly imagine objects and events without support from the real world (2) Play becomes less self-centered: At first, make-believe is directed toward the self; Soon, children begin to direct pretend actions toward objects, as when a child feeds a doll; the third year, they become detached participants, making a doll feed itself; as children realize that agents and recipients of pretend actions can be independent of themselves (3) Play includes more complex combinations of schemes: sociodramatic play, the make-believe with others that is under way by the end of the second year and that increases rapidly in complexity during early childhood ; end of the preschool years, children have a sophisticated understanding of role relationships and story lines Benefits of Make-Believe Practice of representational schemes Play not only reflects but also contributes to children’s cognitive and social skills Sociodramatic play preschoolers’ interactions last longer, show more involvement, draw more children into the activity, and are more cooperative
Those who spend more time in sociodramatic are more socially competent Strengths mental abilities: sustained attention, memory, logical reasoning, language and literacy, imagination, creativity, and the ability to reflect on one’s own thinking, regulate one’s own emotions and behavior, and take another’s perspective Imaginary companions: 25-45%, special fantasized friends endowed with humanlike qualities; children treat it with care and affection and say it offers caring, comfort, and good company, just as their real friendships do (show advanced understanding of others’ viewpoint o o

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