Peds Study Guide Exam 2.docx - Peds Study Guide Exam 2 Alteration in Behavior Cognition or Development Autistic Spectrum Disorders(ASD DefinitionComplex

Peds Study Guide Exam 2.docx - Peds Study Guide Exam 2...

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Peds Study Guide Exam 2 Alteration in Behavior, Cognition, or Development Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) - Definition—Complex brain dysfunction accompanied by broad range and severity of intellectual and behavioral deficits - Etiology unknown o Genetic basis, also brain abnormalities, altered chemistry, a virus, or toxic chemicals - ASD usually appears from 18 to 36 months of age - Four times more common in males - Encompasses autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder–not otherwise specified - Nursing Considerations o Wide variation in individual client response to treatment efforts o No cure o Most promising results seem to be through highly structured routines and intensive behavior modification programs - Warning Signs of Autism o Infant: Lack of eye contact, resist cuddling, lack eye contact, be indifferent to touch or affection, and have little change in facial expression o Toddlers: hyperactivity, aggression, temper, tantrums, or self-injury behaviors head banging or hand bitting o Not babbling by 12 months o Not pointing or using gestures by 12 months o No single words by 16 months o No two-word utterances by 24 months o Losing language or social skills at any age (Starr, et al., 2013) o may be mute, utter only sounds (not words), or repeat words or phrases over and over o Spends hours in repetitive activity and demonstrates bizarre motor and stereotypic behaviors - Family Support o Autism often becomes a “family disease” o Frequently parents express guilt and shame o Stress importance of family counseling o Autism Society of America (ASA) Resource o Managing clients at home or long-term placement facility Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) - Etiology unknown; probably multifactorial - Therapeutic Management of ADHD o Classroom o Family education and counseling o Behavioral therapy and/or psychotherapy for child o Environmental manipulation o Medication - Medications o Not all children benefit from pharmacologic therapy
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o Stimulants Dexedrine, Adderall Ritalin Concerta o Side effects—insomnia, anorexia and weight loss, hypertension; long-term use may suppress growth - Signs and Symptoms o disruption in learning ability, socialization, and compliance o Inattention, impulsiveness, distractibility, and hyperactivity Typical onset before age 7 for longer than 6 months o children and teens can experience frustration, labile moods, emotional outburst, peer rejection, poor school performance, and low self-esteem o poor organization, time management, and the ability to break a project down into a series of smaller tasks Tics & Tourette - Tics are INVOLUNTARY rapid recurring vocal and/or motor movements. - The movements can be simple (a few body parts) or complex (several different body parts that have a different pattern).
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