adult health study guide 1.docx - Adult Health study guide#1 Oxygenation Fluid Balance Fluids are different between age and gender Watch for fluid

adult health study guide 1.docx - Adult Health study...

This preview shows page 1 - 5 out of 28 pages.

Adult Health study guide #1 Oxygenation Fluid Balance - Fluids are different between age and gender - Watch for fluid status to overlook electrolytes and blood count - Regulation of Fluids- 2x sodium + blood sugar divided by 18 o Lots of fluids can be lost through stress o Kidneys 30 mL/hour normal urine output 1 ml/kg/hour o Skin Loss varies Average 500 mL/day What would increase water loss through skin? o Lungs- osmolarity can have an affect Average 300 mL/day What would increase water loss through lungs? o GI 100-200 mL/daily What would increase water loss through GI tract? Where is the majority of water absorbed in GI tract? o Kidney RAAS o Heart and Blood Vessels What condition may affect fluid regulation? o Lungs o Pituitary ADH o Adrenal Aldosterone- causes the movement between membranes Cortisol o Baroreceptors- can cause a drop in blood pressure patient stood up to quickly o Osmoreceptors o Natriuretic Peptides Name 2
Image of page 1
Fluid Balance Problems: Assessment - Fluid Volume Deficit: Hypovolemia- patient needs more volume IV fluids o Thirst o Temperature increases o Rapid/weak pulse o Tachypnea o Poor skin turgor o Hypotension o Weight loss o Dry mucous membranes o Headache, confusion, lethargy o Oliguria (less than 24 hrs.)/anuria (no urine) If patient can not excrete then they will be on dialysis - Fluid Volume Excess: Hypervolemia o Pulse increase/bounding o SOB/dyspnea/cough/crackles o Weight gain o Peripheral edema o JVD Muffled heart sounds o Increased venous pressure/CVP - Edema versus Ascites o Ascites
Image of page 2
Fluid accumulation in the peritoneal cavity related to certain conditions such as cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, certain malignancies Renal failure- nephrotic syndrome o Edema Count 1-1000 2-1000 3-1000 An indent should remain if present - Fluid volume Deficit o Blood loss o Body fat o Vomiting/ diarrhea o Burn victims - Fluid volume Excess o Heart failure o Overload- too much IV fluid o Renal failure - Fluid Balance Problems: Lab Tests o FVD: Hypovolemia Urine specific gravity > 1.030 Increased Hgb and HCT Increased sodium Increased serum osmolality Increased BUN o FVE: Hypervolemia Urine specific gravity < 1.010 Decreased Hgb and HCT Decreased sodium (CRF) Decreased serum osmolality (CFR) Decreased BUN CXR- pulmonary congestion - Fluid Balance Problems: Plan/Implementation o FVD: Hypovolemia Force fluids PO versus IV IVFs Isotonic Monitor I & O Daily weights Monitor vital signs Assess trends Assess skin & tongue turgor Evaluate daily labs values Assess trends o FVE: Hypervolemia
Image of page 3
Restrict fluids Diuretics Sodium-restricted diet Daily weights Assess breath sounds/O2 saturation O2 if needed Assess edema Peripheral, sacral Positioning Dialysis - IV Fluids o Dextrose water= sugar and has calories Equals the amount of plasma Add it to saline then the solution becomes hypertonic greater than plasma o
Image of page 4
Image of page 5

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture