Chapter_5_Notes - I II The nature of attitudes a Attitude...

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I. The nature of attitudes a. Attitude Formation i. Attitudes come from classical conditioning, operant condition, observational learning, and heredity b. Attitude Strength i. Strong attitudes resist change because they are more stable than weaker ones, they are more likely to remain unchanged as time passes. Also, they are less pliant than weaker attitudes in that they are better able to withstand persuasive attacks or appeals specifically directed to them ii. Commitment makes an attitude resistant to change due to commitment and embeddedness iii. Embeddedness makes it resistant to change by having the attitude more connected to additional features of the person c. Attitude-Behavior Consistency i. The factors that influence attitude-behavior consistency are knowledge, personal relevance, and attitude accessibility II. What is Persuasion? i. Persuasion: change in a private attitude or belief as a result of receiving a message ii. Attitudes are different in beliefs in that attitudes are favorable or unfavorable evaluations of particular things whereas beliefs are thoughts about these things b. Measuring Attitude change i. Covert techniques for attitude measurement are preferred when people have a good reason to be less than honest about their true feelings ii. What is a nonreactive measurement 1. A measurement that does not change a subjects responses while recording them c. The After-Only design i. The after-only design draws conclusions about attitude change even though no actual change is measured
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ii. This is better that the before-after design in the study of persuasion because the before message is the culprit iii. Random assignment is important because it equates groups of participants in each condition so that before the study begins, the groups are equivalent to one another, including their initial attitudes d. Cognitive Responses: Self-Talk Persuades i. The key premise of the cognitive response model is what the target says to him as a result of receiving the communication. The direct cause is the self-talk people engage after being exposed to the message ii. Early approaches to attitude change focused on the importance of the message itself iii. Counterarguments are arguments that challenge and oppose other arguments iv. You would inhibit counter argumentation with communicator expertise insufficient time and ability to formulate counterarguments v. Inoculation procedure: a technique for increasing individuals resistance to a strong argument by first giving them weak, easily defeated versions of it e. Dual Process Models of Persuasion: Two routes to change i. Elaboration likelihood Model: a model of persuasive communication that holds that there are two routes to attitude change—the central route and the peripheral route ii.
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