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Chapter_9_Notes - Chapter 9 Reading Notes I The Goals of...

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Chapter 9 Reading Notes I. The Goals of Pro-social Behavior a. Define prosocial behavior. Be prepared to provide an example. i. It is an action intended to benefit another. Putting $20 into a kettle to impress a friend b. List 4 goals served by prosocial behavior i. Improve our own basic welfare ii. Increase social status and approval iii. Manage our self-image iv. Manage our moods and emotions II. Improving our basic welfare: Gaining genetic and material benefits a. *Why does prosocial behavior pose a challenge to evolutionary theorists? i. According to evolutionary theorists, we always operate to enhance our own survival b. Insights into the evolution of help i. Distinguish between survival of the individual and survival of one’s genetic material. 1. Survival of the genes is more important, so one’s genes will be passed on ii. What is inclusive fitness? 1. The survival of one’s genes in one’s own offspring and in any relatives one helps iii. *What does the evidence say about inclusive fitness? 1. Individuals prefer to help those to whom they are genetically related iv. How does the concept of reciprocal aid explain helping behavior directed toward non-relatives? 1. Helping that occurs in return for prior help, therefore helpers benefit by being helped in return c. Focus on method: Using behavioral genetics to study helping i. What information can be gained from studying identical versus nonidentical twins? 1. That individuals will act to increase the welfare of their genes, even if those genes are in someone else’s body. ii. What do twin studies tell us about the genetic contribution to helping behavior? d. Learning to help i. How are instilled beliefs related to helping behavior? 1. Individuals who most strongly believe in helping others for gain would be most likely to help ii. How does learning influence instilled beliefs?
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1. People trained in economics are less likely to make donations to a charity iii. How does exposure to a wide variety of people during childhood influence helping behavior later in life? 1. These people will be more likely to help strangers as adults e. Similarity and familiarity i. How is similarity related to helping behavior? 1. People assist others who are similar to them in appearance, personality and attitudes. ii. How is familiarity related to helping behavior? 1. People are more likely to help others that they are familiar with f. Focus on application: Getting help by adjusting the helper’s sense of “we” i.
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