ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING - IIINTRODUCTIONIt is the branch of public health engineering dealing with collection, conveyance and disposal of wastage (garbage, sullage, sewage). The main purpose of sanitary engineering is to maintain such environment as well not affect the public health in general:
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING - IIINTRODUCTIONFollowing are he various aspects of sanitary engineering: -Collection:The solid and liquid works are collected in specially installed lavatory blocksConveyance:This includes provision of drainage line for the conveyance of solid and liquid wastes, which are collected.Disposal:The conveyed refuse / wastes is treated as the disposed off.
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING - IIDefinition of TermsSewage:It is the waste of foul water of the community conveyed by the sewer. There are three types of sewage:-Domestic or Sanitary Sewage:The sewage from residential buildings business centers, institutions, etc. this also contain human body waste (feaces & urine) and also sullage water.-
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING - IIIndustrial Sewage:The liquid wastes obtained from industrial process such as dying, papermaking, etc, are called industrial sewage.Storm Sewage:It is that part of surface run off which is flowing in sewer during the rainfall.
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING - IISullage:It is the waste water resulting from personal wasting, bathing, laundry, food preparation and cleaning of utensils. It does not include discharge from hospitals and slaughter houses which has high content of organic matters. Sullage is not very foul and can be disposed off in open drain with out treatment.
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING - IIGarbageIt is used for dry refuse of town containing organic, inorganic solids, semisolids, combustible, noncombustible, putrecible and non-putrecible substances. It includes sweeping from houses, streets, markets, public places, garden etc. work paper, leaves, grass, panning of vegetable, decaying fruits etc. with small quantities of sand, cinder, clay and gravel constitute garbage. It is collected separately from sewage and sullage and dispose off separately.
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING - IIInfiltration & Ex-filtration:infiltration is the water which has leaked into the sewer from the ground while ex-filtration is leakage of water out of the sewer to the ground.Inflow:It is the water entering the sewer from surface source through manholes, open cleanouts, perforated manhole cross, and root drain of basement sumps connected to the sewers inflow occurs only during runoff.
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING - IISewers.Sewer is a pipe or conduit carrying sewage, sewers are usually not flowing full (gravity flow). The full flowing sewers are called fore main as the flow is under pressure.
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING - IITypes of SewersSewer has following types.