Vezzoli, Kohtala, Srinivasan - Product-Service System Design for Sustainability.pdf

Vezzoli, Kohtala, Srinivasan - Product-Service System Design for Sustainability.pdf

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Unformatted text preview: This volume presents the theory and the practice of Product-Service System (PSS) Design for Sustainability – the design of systems of products and services that would be jointly capable of satisfying specific needs and desires of the customer (“unit of satisfaction”), as well as related innovative stakeholders’ interactions, leading towards eco-efficiency, social equity and cohesion. The book is structured in two parts. Do you want to learn (and teach) how to design sustainable PSSs? Part I presents the background to and the conceptual framework of PSS innovation and design for sustainability. The meaning and implications of sustainable development dictate a need for system discontinuity and radical change, which can be supported by designing PSSs for Sustainability. These chapters elaborate upon the very concept of PSS innovation: its characteristics and features and related benefits, drivers and barriers. The role of design in developing sustainable PSS is addressed in detail: the approaches, skills and criteria involved in PSS innovation. Researchers, educators and students will benefit from the methodology and related tools, which are mapped out in the final section of Part I. Do you want to learn about (and teach) the new research frontiers of sustainable PSS design? Part II of the book explores promising research directions and hypotheses on sustainable PSS design. It is composed of themed sections and their chapters: X X E UROPE A ID CO-OPERATION OFFICE This book is available for download ( ) under a Creative Commons licence allowing interested design educators to freely modify, remix, reuse and/or translate, i.e. adapt according to each teacher’s specific didactic needs, institutional requirements and local-context peculiarities and sustainability agenda. Greenleaf Publishing Aizlewood’s Mill, Nursery Street, Sheffield S3 8GG, UK Tel: +44 (0)114 282 3475 Fax: +44 (0)114 282 3476 [email protected] Cover.indd 1 This Work is Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 For full details on the license, go to: Cover design: [email protected] Carlo Vezzoli, Cindy Kohtala and Amrit Srinivasan with JC Diehl, Sompit Moi Fusakul, Liu Xin and Deepta Sateesh Vezzoli, Kohtala and Srinivasan New ways to deliver satisfaction and manage the transition New perspectives on sustainable PSS in low-income and emerging contexts X New ways to leverage social innovation for sustainability X New ways to design for moderation X New ways to educate Product-Service System Design for Sustainability the Learning Network on Sustainability Product-Service System Design for Sustainability Learning Network on Sustainability 06/02/14 8:08 PM Product-Service System Design for Sustainability Prelims.indd 1 08/01/14 6:09 PM Prelims.indd 2 08/01/14 6:09 PM Product-Service System Design for Sustainability Carlo Vezzoli, Cindy Kohtala and Amrit Srinivasan with JC Diehl, Sompit Moi Fusakul, Liu Xin and Deepta Sateesh Learning Network on Sustainability Prelims.indd 3 08/01/14 6:09 PM Scientifc committee and editorial team: Carlo Vezzoli, Cindy Kohtala, Amrit Srinivasan, with J.C. Diehl, Sompit Moi Fusakul, Liu Xin and Deepta Sateesh Creative Commons: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA) © 2014 Greenleaf Publishing Limited Published by Greenleaf Publishing Limited Aizlewood’s Mill Nursery Street Sheffield S3 8GG UK Cover design by LaliAbril.com British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data: A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN-13: 978-1-906093-67-9 [hardback] ISBN-13: 978-1-909493-69-8 [PDF ebook] ISBN-13: 978-1-78353-079-3 [ePub ebook] Prelims.indd 4 08/01/14 6:09 PM Acknowledgements This volume is a collaboration of authors and editors representing all partners in the LeNS project, the Learning Network on Sustainability. The main author of the Introduction and Part 1, Chapters 1 to 4, is Carlo Vezzoli1, with key editorial contributions by Cindy Kohtala2, Amrit Srivinasan3, Sompit Moi Fusakul4, J.C. Diehl5 and Liu Xin6. In particular, Liu Xin authored section 3.5.1, Sompit Moi Fusakul section 3.5.2, and Amrit Srivinasan section 3.5.3. Sections 4.3.13-15 were contributed by Marisa Galbiati1, Mariana Ciancia1 and Francesca Piredda1. Praoranuj Ann Siridej4 and Sompit Moi Fusakul4 authored section 4.2.2. The contributing and invited authors in Part 2 are given at the beginning of each chapter. We gratefully acknowledge the contribution of all editors of Part 2, Carlo Vezzoli1, Cindy Kohtala2, Amrit Srivinasan3, J.C. Diehl5, Liu Xin6, Sompit Moi Fusakul4, and Deepta Sateesh7, and especially acknowledge the assistance of Fabrizio Ceschin8, Radhika Ralhan, and Praoranuj Ann Siridej4 regarding this publication. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Prelims.indd 5 Politecnico di Milano, Design Department, School of Design, Italy. Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture, Department of Design, Finland. Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India. King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Faculty of Architecture, Department of Design, Thailand. Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, the Netherlands. Tsinghua University, Academy of Arts & Design, China. Srishti School of Art, Design and Technology, India. Brunel University, School of Engineering and Design, Department of Design, UK. 08/01/14 6:09 PM Book rights This book is published under a Creative Commons license: specifically, AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike. See . An electronic version is downloadable for free from the LeNS project website, . The book is one of the outcomes of LeNS, the Learning Network on Sustainability, a project funded by the Asia-Link Programme, EuropeAid, European Commission, for curricula development and teaching diffusion in worldwide design higher education institutions, on design for sustainability focused on product-service system innovation. This publication has the patronage of the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014, DESD). United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD). In December 2002, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) adopted resolution 57/254 to put in place a United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), spanning from 2005 to 2014, and designated UNESCO to lead the Decade. The United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development seeks to integrate the principles, values, and practices of sustainable development into all aspects of education and learning, in order to address the social, economic, cultural and environmental problems we face in the 21st century. During this decade, education for sustainable development will contribute to preparing citizens better prepared to face the challenges of the present and the future, and decision-makers who will act responsibly to create a viable world. Prelims.indd 6 08/01/14 6:09 PM Book rights vii ESD supports five fundamental types of learning to provide quality education and foster sustainable human development—learning to know, learning to be, learning to live together, learning to do and learning to transform oneself and society. ( --- [email protected]) Prelims.indd 7 08/01/14 6:09 PM Prelims.indd 8 08/01/14 6:09 PM Contents Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii Introduction: sustainability in design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Design and sustainability: an increasing role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 The structure of this book .................................................... 7 PART I: PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY: CONSOLIDATED KNOWLEDGE AND KNOW-HOW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1. Sustainable development and system discontinuity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.1 Sustainable development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.2 The sustainability dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.3 Sustainability: demand for radical change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 1.4 Sustainability within a context in strong evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 1.5 The diverse paths towards sustainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2. PSS innovation and sustainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.1 Product-Service System eco-efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.2 Product-Service Systems for emerging and low-income contexts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Prelims.indd 9 08/01/14 6:09 PM x Product-Service System Design for Sustainability 3. Product-Service System design for sustainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3.1 PSS design for sustainability: a definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3.2 PSS design for sustainability: approaches and skills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.3 Design criteria for and examples of system eco-efficiency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 3.4 Design criteria for and examples of social equity and cohesion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 3.5 PSS design for sustainability in Asia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 4. Methods and tools for system design for sustainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 4.1 Criteria, methods and tools ......................................... 87 4.2 MSDS: a modular method for system design for sustainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 4.3 Design tools for SDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Bibliography ................................................................ 179 Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 PART II: THE NEW DESIGN FRONTIERS OF PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Section 1: New Ways to Deliver Satisfaction and Manage the Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 1. An aesthetic for sustainable interactions in Product-Service Systems? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 1.1 The limited diffusion of eco-efficient Product-Service Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 1.2 Eco-efficient Product-Service System (PSS): user acceptance barriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 1.3 A potential role for aesthetics? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 1.4 Semiotics, aesthetics and eco-efficient PSS ..................... 208 1.5 Conclusions and future research directions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 References Prelims.indd 10 ................................................................. 216 08/01/14 6:09 PM Contents xi 2. Sustainable consumer satisfaction in the context of clothing . . . . . . . . . . 218 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 2.2 Consumer-based eco-efficiency .................................. 220 2.3 Consumer satisfaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 2.4 Satisfaction through design strategies and PSS ................. 226 2.5 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 ......................................................... 234 ................................................................. 235 2.6 Conclusions References 3. Developing new products and services in entrepreneurial contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 3.2 Models of product innovation and PSS innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 3.3 An emerging theory of entrepreneurship: effectuation . . . . . . . . . . . 242 3.4 PSS innovation process in effectuation ........................... 244 3.5 SDC case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 ......................................................... 248 ................................................................. 249 3.6 Conclusions References 4. The societal embedding of sustainable Product-Service Systems: looking for synergies between strategic design and transition studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 4.1 The problem of implementing and diffusing eco-efficient PSSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 4.2 Insights from transition studies .................................... 252 4.3 A conceptual framework for the implementation and diffusion of eco-efficient PSSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 4.4 Implications for design: a new role for strategic design for sustainability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 4.5 Towards a new way of designing and implementing eco-efficient PSSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 ......................................................... 272 ................................................................. 273 4.6 Conclusions References Prelims.indd 11 08/01/14 6:09 PM xii Product-Service System Design for Sustainability 5. Our common nature: insights from the ‘moral faculty’ and its potential role in system design for socially and environmentally sustainable outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 5.1 Our common nature/future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 5.2 Fragments from the history of morality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 5.3 Human morality and economic theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 5.4 Advances in the understanding of the ‘moral faculty’ . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 5.5 Some case studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 5.6 Insights from the ‘moral faculty’ and a potential role in system design for sustainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 ......................................................... 291 ................................................................. 291 5.7 Conclusions References Section 2: New Perspectives on Sustainable PSS in Low-Income and Emerging Contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 6. PSS in waste: lessons from the Indian informal economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 6.2 The waste pyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 6.3 Social equity in PSS design for waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 6.4 PSS and the privatisation issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 6.5 PSS and the political economy of waste recycling and re-use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 6.6 PSS promotion and cultural perceptions of waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 ......................................................... 306 ................................................................. 306 6.7 Conclusions References 7. Sustainable Product-Service Systems in the informal economy of poor urban contexts: India and the case of press workers in clothes care system in Delhi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 7.1 Urbanisation and rising poverty in India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 7.2 Profiling the press workers of Delhi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 Prelims.indd 12 08/01/14 6:09 PM Contents xiii 7.3 Sustainability of this unique Product-Service System. . . . . . . . . . . . 317 7.4 Conclusions and future PSS intervention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 References ................................................................. 320 8. Sustainability at work, sustainability at play: the consequences of an urban horticulture project involving underprivileged children in India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 8.2 Understanding human needs through the capabilities approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 8.3 City Spinning ........................................................ 324 8.4 Social and ecological consequences of the project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 8.5 Focusing on human needs and capabilities in design ........... 329 8.6 Conclusion: lessons for PSS design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 References ................................................................. 332 Section 3: New Ways to Leverage Social Innovation for Sustainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 9. Design for Chinese social innovation: pilot PSS design experiences for sustainable lifestyles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 9.1 Chinese social innovations for a sustainable and harmonious society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 9.2 Design exercises on grassroots social innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 9.3 Design scenarios of Chinese sustainable lifestyles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 ......................................................... 343 ................................................................. 344 9.4 Conclusions References 10. Design and social innovation: design practice and methods based on networks and communities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 10.2 Design objectives and methods ................................... 346 10.3 Case study: Social innovation practice in a traditional community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
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