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IMMUNE SYSTEM STUDY GUIDE TWO 1. Major lymphocyte categories: a. T-lymphocytes: born in bone marrow; develop in thymus b. B-lymphocytes: originate in bone marrow c. NK lymphocytes: mature in bone 2. Lymphoid Organ : organ that contains well-defined anatomical sites and at least partial connective tissue capsules that separate the lymphatic tissue from neighboring tissues. a. Categories of Organs i. Primary lymphatic: where T and B lymphocytes become immunocompetent (able to recognize and respond to antigens) 1. Examples: red bone marrow and thymus ii. Secondary Lymphatic: populated with immunocompetent lymphocytes only after the cells have matured in the primary lymphatic organs 1. Examples: lymph nodes, tonsils, and spleen 3. Antibody: a gamma globulin produced by plasma cells in response to an antigen a. Basic structure: four polypeptides linked by disulfide (-S-S-) bonds b. Chemistry: 400 amino acids long-heavy chains (2 of them) : 200 amino acids long-light chains (2 of them) c. Variable region: heavy and light chains combine to form antigen bonding site on each arm 4. Antibodies are made by proteins. 5. Subcategories of lymphocytes: a. B-lymph (originate in bone marrow) i. B-cells: surface antibodies bind to antigens 1. stimulate cell division and differentiation to plasma cells and memory cells ii. Plasma cells: produce antibodies iii. B-memory cells: allows rapid production of antibodies and responsible for secondary immune response b. T-lymphocytes (born in bone marrow) i. Th-helper T lymphocytes (increase activity 1. regulate B lymphocytes and killer (cycotoxic) T lymphocytes ii. Ts-suppressor T lymphocytes (decrease activity) 1. regulate B lymphocytes and killer T lymphocytes iii. Tc-cycotoxic T lymphocytes 1.
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