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NURS 611Assign 12.1Becki EwyChapter 24: Structure and Function of the Reproductive SystemsConcept 1: Puberty (Q# 1, Study Guide, p. 118): Puberty is the onset of sexual maturation and differs from adolescence. Adolescence is the stage of human development between childhood and adulthood and includes social, psychologic, and biologic changes. In girls, puberty begins atabout ages 8-9 years with thelarche (breast development). In boys, it begins later-at about age 11years-but occurs earlier with increased weight and body mass index. Genetic, environment, ethnicity, general health, and nutrition can influence the timing of puberty.Concept 2: Thelarche (Q#4, Study Guide, p. 118): Breast development, or thelarche, is usually the first sign of puberty in the female. Full differentiation and maturation of breast tissue occur over approximately 4 years and are mediated by the level of a variety of hormones, including estrogen progesterone, prolactin, growth hormone, thyroid and parathyroid hormones, insulin, and cortisol. Estrogen promotes the increase in size of the breast by the formation of a mass tissue under the areola, increases the size and pigmentation of areola, and promotes development of the lobular ducts. The breast cells of parous women are different than those of women who never become pregnant as expansion of acini only occurs with pregnancy when the mammary gland prepare for lactation. During menopause the lobules of the parous breast involute to pre-pregnancy composition and become identical to the nulliparous breast.