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Chapter 6 - Chapter 6 Learning An enduring change in...

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Chapter 6 Learning : An enduring change in behavior that results from experience Classical conditioning : A type of learned response that occurs when a neutral object comes to elicit a reflexive response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response Unconditioned response (UR) : A response that does not have to be learned, such as a reflex (salivating) Unconditioned stimulus (US) : A stimulus that elicits a response, such as a reflex, without any prior learning (steak) Conditioned stimulus (CS) : A stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place (bell goes from neutral stimulus to CS) Conditioned response (CR) : A response that has been learned (salivating to the sound of the bell) Acquisition : The gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli Extinction : A process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus Spontaneous recovery : A process in which a previously extinguished response reemerges following presentation of the conditioned stimulus Stimulus generalization : Occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response (different tones) Stimulus discrimination : A learned tendency to differentiate between two similar stimuli if one is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus and the other is not Phobia : An acquired fear that is out of proportion to the real threat of an object or a situation Biological preparedness: The idea that animals are biologically programmed to learn to fear specific objects Rescorla-Wagner model : A cognitive model of classical conditioning that states that the strength of the CS-US association is determined by the extent to which the unconditioned stimulus is unexpected Operant conditioning : A learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future Law of effect : Thorndike’s general theory of learning, which states that any behavior that leads to a “satisfying state of affairs” is more likely to occur again, and that those that lead to an “annoying state of affairs” are less likely to occur Reinforcer : A stimulus following a response that increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated Shaping : A process of operant conditioning that involves reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior Primary reinforcers : Reinforcers that are innately reinforcing, such as those that satisfy biological needs Secondary reinforcers : Events or objects that become reinforcers through their repeated pairings with primary reinforcers
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Punishment : A stimulus following a response that decreases the likelihood that the response will be repeated Positive reinforcement : The increase in the probability of a behavior’s being
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