Chapter 7 - Chapter 7 Memory 1 Memory The capacity of the nervous system to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge allowing living

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Chapter 7 – Memory 1. Memory : The capacity of the nervous system to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge, allowing living organisms to benefit from experience 2. Modal memory model : The three-stage memory system that involves sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory 3. Sensory memory : Memory for sensory information that is stored briefly in its original sensory form 4. Short-term memory (STM) : A limited-capacity memory system that holds information in awareness for a brief period of time 5. Working memory : An active processing system that keeps different types of information available for current use 6. Long-term memory (LTM) : The relatively permanent storage of information 7. Serial position effect : The ability to recall items from a list depends on order of presentation, with items presented early or late in the list remembered better than those in the middle 8. Primacy effect : In a list, the better memory for items presented first 9. Recency effect : In a list, the better memory for words presented later in the list 10. Explicit memory : The processes involved when people remember specific information 11. Declarative memory : The cognitive information retrieved from explicit memory; knowledge that can be declared 12. Episodic memory : Memory for one’s personal past experiences 13. Semantic memory : Memory for knowledge about the world 14. Implicit memory : The process by which people show an enhancement of memory, most often through behavior, without deliberate effort and without any awareness that they are remembering anything 15. Procedural memory : A type of implicit memory that involves motor skills and behavioral habits 16. Repetition priming : The improvement in identifying or processing a stimulus that has previously been experienced 17. Encoding : The processing of information so that it can be stored 18. Storage : The retention of encoded representations over time that corresponds to some change in the nervous system that registers the event 19. Retrieval : The act of recalling or remembering stored information in order to use it 20. Maintenance rehearsal : A type of encoding that involves continually repeating an item 21. Elaborative rehearsal : The encoding of information in a more meaningful fashion, such as linking it to knowledge in long-term memory 22. Schema : A hypothetical cognitive structure that helps us perceive, organize, process, and use information 23. Encoding specificity principle : Any stimulus that is encoded along with an experience can later trigger memory for the experience 24. Consolidation : A hypothetical process involving the transfer of contents from immediate memory into long-term memory
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25. Spatial memory : Memory for the physical environment that includes such things as location of objects, direction, and cognitive maps 26. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) : A mental disorder that involves frequent nightmares, intrusive thoughts, and flashbacks related to an earlier trauma
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2008 for the course PSY 202 taught by Professor Henriques during the Spring '08 term at Wisconsin.

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Chapter 7 - Chapter 7 Memory 1 Memory The capacity of the nervous system to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge allowing living

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