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Unformatted text preview: URDU/HINDI: AN ARTIFICIAL DIVIDE The Politics of Language URDU/HINDI: AN ARTIFICIAL DIVIDE African Heritage, Mesopotamian Roots, Indian Culture & British Colonialism Abdul Jamil Khan Algora Publishing New York © 2006 by Algora Publishing All Rights Reserved No portion of this book (beyond what is permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the United States Copyright Act of 1976) may be reproduced by any process, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, without the express written permission of the publisher. ISBN-10: 0-87586-437-6 (soft cover) ISBN-10: 0-87586-438-4 (hardcover) ISBN-10: 0-87586-439-2 (ebook) Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data — Khan, Abdul Jamil. The Politics of Language. Urdu/Hindi: an artificial divide: African heritage, Mesopotamian roots, Indian culture & Bristish Colonialism / Abdul Jamil Khan. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-87586-438-4 (hard cover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-87586-437-6 (pbk : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-87586-439-2 (ebook) 1. Urdu language—History. 2. Urdu language—Classification. 3. Hindi language—History. 4. Hindi language—Classification. I. Title. PK1971.K435 2006 491.4'3—dc22 2006010961 Cover Image: Hieroglyphs in stones, Manali, Himachal Pradesh, India Image: © Paul C. Pet/zefa/Corbis Photographer: Paul C. Pet Printed in the United States Abbreviations ABBREVIATIONS Languages AKK - Akkadian ARAB, AR - Arabic ARAM - Aramaic ASY - Assyrian BR - Brahui ELAM - Elamite GO - Gond GR - Greek HEB - Hebrew HIN - Hindi HITT - Hittite HUR - Hurrian HUR-MIT - Hurrian-Mitanni KA - Kannada KUR - Kurux LAT - Latin LEXI - Lingua Extinctorum Indica MA - Malayalam MAL - Malto PERS - Persian PKT - Prakrit SKT - Sanskrit S, SUM - Sumerian TA - Tamil TE - Telugu URD - Urdu Language Families and Types AA - Austro-Asiatic AM - Austric-Munda DR - Dravidian GEAS - Grand Euro-Asiatic Super Family vii Urdu/Hindi: An Artificial Divide IA - Indo-Aryan IE - Indo-European LBW - Language of Business and Work LOR - Language of Rearing LRR - Language of Religious Ritual LST - Language of Science and Technology MAF - Mesopotamia Ancient Family MIA - Middle Indo-Aryan MEIA - Middle East Indo-Asiatic MUNDRAVI - Munda-Dravidian (hybrid) NEAS - North-Euro-Asiatic-Super Family NIA - Neo-Indo-Aryan PDR - Proto-Dravidian PIE - Proto-Indo-European PED - Proto-Elamo-Dravidian PII - Proto-Indo-Iranian PIR - Proto-Iranian SAH - South Asian Hindustani SEAS - South-Euro-Asiatic-Super Family SEM - Semitic Language Scripts ABS - Asokan Brahmi Script APS - Arabic Persian Script CFS - Cuneiform Script DNS - Dev-Nagari Script GRS - Greco-Roman Script PAS - Phoenician-Aramic Script Miscellaneous AAA - Aligarh Alumni Association AMU - Aligarh Muslim University BJP - Bhartiya Janta Party DC - Delhi College DED - Dravidian Etymological Dictionary viii Abbreviations Desi - term for person from Indian subcontinent EIC - East India Company FWC - Fort William College HMS - Hindu Maha Sabha HPSV - Hearing, Perception, Speech and Vocalization System INC - Indian National Congress IRS - Indian Religion System IVC - Indus-Valley Culture MAOC - Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College ML - Muslim League MP - Madhaya Pradesh PWM - Progressive Writers’ Movement RV - Rig Ved RSS - Rashtriya Soyam Sevak Sangh TB - Tad Bhav (altered Sanskrit word) TS - Tat Sam (pure Sanskrit word) UP - Uttar Pradesh WW - World War ix TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY MESOPOTAMIAN LANGUAGES HINDI/URDU LITERATURE URDU/HINDI POLITICS GLOBALISM IN URDU/HINDI 3 5 5 6 6 6 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 9 LIST OF TABLES AND ILLUSTRATIONS 11 CHAPTER I. MESOPOTAMIAN ROOTS AND LANGUAGE CLASSIFICATION 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 SCIENTIFIC HISTORY: SUMMARIZED 1.2 TEXTBOOK HISTORY 1.3 EVOLUTION OF CLASSIFICATION 13 13 14 16 17 1.3.1 Language Families and Types 18 1.4 POLITICS OF LINGUISTIC SPLITS 1.5 A MYTHICAL DILEMMA IN MODERN LINGUISTICS 1.6 THE MYTHICAL WORLD OF SANSKRIT 1.7 INDOPHILISM AND INDO-EUROPEANISM 1.8 RACISM COAT-TAILED ON SANSKRIT 1.9 LINGUISTIC LIBERALISM 1.10 LANGUAGE AS A UTILITY IN INDIA 1.11 GRAMMAR TYPES AND SYNTAX 1.12 MIDDLE EAST FARMERS: PARENTS OF URDU/HINDI 1.13 CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER II. PHONETICS, LINGUISTICS AND GENETICS — DNA 2.0 INTRODUCTION 2.1 GENETICS BLUNTS LINGUISTIC RACISM xi 19 20 21 22 23 25 27 28 29 30 33 33 34 Urdu/Hindi: An Artificial Divide 2.2 SPEECH, GENES (FOXP2), AND LANGUAGE EVOLUTION 2.3 GREAT ARAB LINGUISTS 2.4 PHONETICS OF URDU/HINDI AND OTHERS 2.5 GROWTH, GRAMMAR, AND ACCIDENCE 2.6 CLASSIFICATION: A SCIENCE AND AN ART 2.7 RECONSTRUCTION BUSINESS 2.8 EMERGENCE OF SUPERFAMILIES 2.9 ALL CONNECTED — ONE LANGUAGE 2.10 INDO-ARYAN OR INDIAN URDU/HINDI Urdu/Hindi 37 38 39 41 44 45 47 49 49 51 2.11 URDU/HINDI AND THE IE TIMELINE/GLOTTOCHROLOGY Urdu/Hindi and Punjabi Urdu/Hindi, Gujarati, Marathi, and Bengali Kashmiri, Urdu/Hindi, and others Persian and IA (Urdu/Hindi etc) German/English, Persian, IA dialects 2.12 PROMOTION OF INDO-EUROPEANIST VIEWS 2.13 URDU/HINDI–DNA SCHEME 2.14 CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER III. MIDDLE EAST: SOURCE OF SEMITIC, DRAVIDIAN AND INDO-EUROPEAN/SANSKRIT 3.0 INTRODUCTION 3.1 WEST ASIAN THEATER (SUMERIANS) 3.1.1 Sumerian Religion and Culture 3.1.2 Sumerian Lingustics 3.1.3 Sumerian Vocabulary in Urdu/Hindi 3.1.4 Sumerian Literature 3.2 THE ELAMITES AND PROTO-ELAMO-DRAVIDIAN (PED) 3.2.1 Elamite “Dravidian” Language of Iran 3.3 CENTRAL ASIAN POLYGLOT (EARLIEST ARYAN-IE) 3.3.1 Languages (Hurrian, Hittite, etc.) 3.3.2 Hittite Phonemes 3.4 AKKADIAN/ASSYRIAN (OLDEST ARABIC) 3.5 EARLIEST PERSIAN 3.6 EARLIEST SANSKRIT (VEDIC) 3.7 MESOPOTAMIAN PHONETICS AND PIE 3.8 MESOPOTAMIAN GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY 3.9 CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER IV. AUSTRIC-MUNDA-DRAVIDIAN AND OLDEST HINDI/URDU 4.0 INTRODUCTION 4.1 PRE-AUSTRIC PHASE 4.2 AUSTRIC PEOPLE’S CULTURE AND LANGUAGE 4.3 RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL CONTRIBUTION xii 53 53 53 53 53 53 55 56 57 59 59 59 61 61 62 64 66 68 70 73 74 74 76 78 79 80 80 83 83 83 84 85 Table of Contents 4.4 THE AUSTRIC OR MUNDA LANGUAGE 4.4.1 Munda and Its Dialects 4.4.2 Linguistic Features 4.4.3 Prefixes and Infixes of Austric-Munda 4.5 MUNDA-SPECIFIC VOCABULARY 4.6 MUNDA GENDER, NUMBER AND SYNTAX 4.7 GENERAL MUNDA VOCABULARY IN URDU/HINDI 4.8 THE DRAVIDIAN PHASE AND ITS CONTRIBUTION 4.9 MIDDLE EASTERN ROOTS OF DRAVIDIAN PEOPLE 4.10 DRAVIDIAN RELIGION AND CULTURE 4.11 PROTO-DRAVIDIAN IN PROTO-URDU 4.12 LINGUISTIC FEATURES OF PDR OR DRAVIDIAN (DR) 4.13 FIRST HYBRID-MUNDRAVI (PROTO-PKT/URDU) 4.14 DRAVIDIAN-SUFFIXES/PARTICLES IN URDU 4.15 VOCABULARY LOANS TO URDU/HINDI 4.16 DRAVIDIAN VERBS IN URDU 4.17 SOUND WORDS (ONOMATOPOEIA) 4.18 MUNDRAVI-PROTO-URDU 4.19 CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER V. SANSKRIT-PRAKRIT AND OLD-URDU/HINDI 5.0 INTRODUCTION 5.1 WRITTEN RELIGIOUS SYSTEMS 5.2 HINDUISM OR THE INDIAN RELIGIOUS SYSTEM (IRS) 5.3 MARCH OF TIME (HISTORY) 5.4 SANSKRIT-PRAKRIT SYSTEM 5.5 LINGUISTICS OF SKT-PKT 5.5.1 SKT’s Inflection and Evolution 86 87 88 89 89 90 91 94 95 96 97 98 98 99 100 105 106 107 108 109 109 109 110 112 114 115 117 5.6 SANSKRIT AND URDU/HINDI 5.7 LOANS INTO SKT 5.8 URDU’S VOCABULARY FROM SKT 5.8.1 SKT – Verbs 5.8.2 Relationships, Flora, Places, and Names 5.8.3 Household Items 5.8.4 Professions and Titles/Ranks 5.8.5 Adjectives and Adverbs 5.8.6 Social-Cultural, and Life of Mind 5.8.7 SKT’s Help in Grammar 5.9 LITERARY LEGACY OF SKT 5.10 PRAKRIT-OLD URDU/HINDI 5.11 LEXICAL EVOLUTION IN OLD URDU/HINDI 5.12 PKT-PALI LITERATURE (WORLD CLASS) 5.13 LINGUA EXTINCTORUM INDICA (LEXI) (IN OLD URDU) 5.14 CHAPTER SUMMARY xiii 118 118 120 120 122 122 122 122 123 123 124 127 128 129 131 131 Urdu/Hindi: An Artificial Divide CHAPTER VI. ARABIC-PERSIAN: NEW SUBSTRATES FROM THE MIDDLE EAST 133 6.0 INTRODUCTION 133 6.1 HISTORY’S MARCH 134 6.2 THE ROLE OF ARABIC/PERSIAN 135 6.3 ARABIC-PERSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS 137 6.4 ARABIC VERBS IN URDU/HINDI 138 6.5 PERSIAN VERBS IN URDU/HINDI 140 6.6 GENERAL VOCABULARY FROM ARABIC-PERSIAN 141 6.6.1 Relationship Words 6.6.2 Food, Fruits and Edibles, etc. 6.6.3 Household Items/Environment 6.6.6 Body Parts 6.6.7 Adjectives and Adverbs 6.6.8 Social-Cultural, and Life of Mind 6.6.9 Adverbs, Pronominal and Qualifying Particles 6.7 PLURAL MAKING/GRAMMAR 6.8 PERSIAN AFFIXES 6.9 A GLIMPSE OF ARABIC LITERATURE 6.10 GLIMPSE OF PERSIAN LITERATURE 6.11 CHAPTER SUMMARY 141 141 141 144 144 145 145 146 147 148 150 151 CHAPTER VII. LANGUAGE OF SAINTS AND SULTANS 7.0 INTRODUCTION 7.1 EVOLVING HINDIWI-HINDI AND DISPERSAL 7.2 VARIETY IN PHONETICS AND VOCABULARY 7.3 EARLIEST NAGARI-HINDI-URDU 7.4 EARLY POETS – WRITERS OF THE NORTH 153 153 155 156 157 159 7.4.3 Khusro–The Pioneer of the Term Hindi 7.4.4 Some Religious-Liberals of Urdu/Hindi 7.4.5 Some Secular Poets 160 162 164 7.5 GUJRAT AND URDU/HINDI 7.6 LANGUAGE OF THE SOUTH (DECCAN) 7.6.1 Deccani Sufi Poets 7.6.2 Poet King, Mohammad Quli Qutub Shah (1565–1612) 7.7 PRE-MOGHUL HINDI AND URDU 7.8 CHAPTER SUMMARY 166 167 168 169 169 170 CHAPTER VIII. SECULAR MOGHULS AND SECULAR LANGUAGE 8.0 INTRODUCTION 8.1 HISTORICAL MARCH – BABAR TO BRITISH (1500–1900) 8.2 THE MOGHULS’ “SECULAR CULTURAL STATE” 8.3 URDU’S DOSE OF TURKISH 8.4 URDU’S PLACE IN THE MOGHUL PHASE 8.6 URDU: NEW BRAND NAME AND CULTURE xiv 171 171 171 173 174 175 179 Table of Contents 8.7 URDU’S LINGUISTIC GROWTH 8.8 POETS AND POETRY OF THE 18TH CENTURY – A GLIMPSE 8.8.1 Poets and Poetry of South India 8.8.2 Poets and Poetry of the North (East and West) 8.8.3 Poet Kings of Delhi 8.8.4 Lucknow Poetry and Culture (18th–19th Century) 8.8.5 Poets/Poetry of Other Places 8.9 PROSE: INDIAN UTILITY 180 181 182 183 186 186 189 191 8.9.1 Religious Utility Prose 8.9.2 Secular Prose 192 194 8.10 ADVENT OF LINGUISTIC SEPARATISM 8.11 CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER IX. URDU: OFFICIAL LANGUAGE OF BRITISH INDIA 9.0 INTRODUCTION 9.1 LINGUISTIC DEVICES 9.2 THE EUROPEANS’ LOVE OF INDIA 9.3 SURGING BRITISH PHASE 9.4 ARYANISM’S BIRTH – THE IE FAMILY 9.5 COMMUNALISM; DIVIDE AND RULE 9.6 LANGUAGE OF EMPIRE – URDU 9.7 PROSE DEVELOPMENT 9.7.1 Fort William College (FWC) 9.7.2 Professors at FWC 9.7.3 FWC – Authors and Publications 9.8 DELHI COLLEGE (DC) 195 196 197 197 198 198 199 199 200 201 201 202 202 204 205 9.8.1 Urdu’s Evolution at Delhi College 9.8.2 Some Faculty of DC 9.8.3 Delhi Alumni’s Boost to Urdu 9.9 SURGING URDU PROSE 206 206 207 208 9.9.1 Ghalib and Urdu Prose (1797-1869) 9.10 Sir Syed Ahmed Khan/Scientific Society 9.10.1 Syed Ahmed Khan (1817-1898) 9.10.2 MAOC or Scientific Society and Urdu’s Growth 9.10.3 Other (Non-MAOC) Scholars 9.11 REGIONAL SOCIETIES AND URDU PROSE 9.12 URDU POETRY IN THE 19TH CENTURY 9.12.1 North Indian Poets 9.12.2 South Indian Poets 9.12.3 Urdu Poetry of Suburbia/Village 9.13 BRITISH POETS OF URDU 9.14 19TH CENTURY UTILITY, URDU 9.15 CHAPTER SUMMARY 208 209 209 211 212 213 215 215 219 219 220 222 223 xv Urdu/Hindi: An Artificial Divide CHAPTER X. HINDI’S CREATOR: BRITISH BENGAL 10.0 INTRODUCTION 10.1 SCRIPTS AND EDUCATION IN THE 19TH CENTURY 10.2 HINDI’S SEED IN BENGAL (AT FORT WILLIAM) 10.3 DEFINITION OF NEO-HINDI 10.4 BENGALI’S HELP IN HINDI 10.5 HINDI WRITERS OF THE 19TH CENTURY 10.6 HINDI’S GROWTH 10.7 HINDI POETRY 10.8 HINDI LITERACY AND JOURNALISM 10.9 HINDI/URDU AND POLITICAL “ARYANISM” 10.9.1 Love and Hate in the Aryan Family 10.10 HINDI’S EXTERNAL HELP 10.11 BENGAL VS. HINDUSTAN 10.12 RADICALS OF HINDI MOVEMENT 10.13 SECULAR CONSERVATIVE: SIR SYED AHMAD KHAN 10.14 HINDI-URDU DUEL 10.14.1 Second Round 1870s 10.14.2 Third Round 1880s 10.14.3 Fourth Round 1890s 10.14.4 Fifth Round 1900 225 225 226 226 228 229 230 232 234 235 236 236 239 240 243 245 246 248 249 249 249 10.15 LINGUISTIC RACISM AND FREEDOM MOVEMENTS 10.16 CHAPTER SUMMARY 250 250 CHAPTER XI. PARTITION OF LANGUAGE, LAND, AND HEARTS 11.0 INTRODUCTION 11.1 BRITISH LEGACY AND POLITICS 11.2 MOVERS AND SHAKERS, THE LEADERS 11.3 EVENTS, EPISODES AND EXHORTATIONS 11.4 PROGRESSIVE WRITERS’ MOVEMENT 11.5 URDU/HINDI DEBACLE AND FOLLOW-UP 11.5.1 GANDHI’S TWINS – URDU/HINDI 11.6 STOP HINDI/URDU DEBACLE 11.7 SHOCK AND RECOVERY OF INDIAN URDU 11.8 “ISLAMIC URDU” OF PAKISTAN 11.9 DIVIDED LANGUAGE OF DIVIDED HEARTS 11.10 CHAPTER SUMMARY 253 253 254 254 255 259 260 262 263 265 268 271 273 CHAPTER XII. URDU THROUGH THE 20TH CENTURY 12.0 INTRODUCTION 12.1 MODERN POETS AND POETRY 12.2 MUSHAIRA CULTURE 12.3 MUSHAIRA – ORGANIZERS – POETS 12.4 URDU PROSE/CULTURAL FLOW 12.5 CHAPTER SUMMARY 275 275 275 283 285 288 293 xvi Table of Contents CHAPTER XIII. HINDI’S EVOLUTION THROUGH THE 20TH CENTURY 13.0 INTRODUCTION 13.1 LANGUAGE EVOLUTION AND STREAMS 13.2 CREATIVITY AND SUBSTITUTION 13.3 PROGRESSIVE WRITERS’ MOVEMENT (PWM) AND HINDI 13.4 MODERN HINDI POETRY 13.4.1 RECENT POETRY 13.5 HINDI PROSE 13.6 PROSE LITERATURE (LIFE-OF-MIND PROSE) 13.7 MUSLIMS’ HINDI 13.8 ISLAMIC CREDENTIAL OF HINDI 13.8.1 HINDI’S RELIGIOUS ISLAMIC LITERATURE 13.9 HINDI’S ARABIC PHONEMES/DEMOGRAPHIC SHIFT 13.10 CHAPTER SUMMARY 295 295 295 297 301 301 306 308 309 310 310 311 312 314 CHAPTER XIV. URDU/HINDI: A SHOW BIZ POWER 14.0 INTRODUCTION 14.1 FILM LANGUAGE – QUALITY CONTROL 14.2 BIRTH OF DRAMA/STAGE 14.3 COMMERCIAL STAGE: EVOLUTION 14.4 DRAMA ACADEMICS 14.5 DRAMA ANTHOLOGY 14.6 URDU OR HINDI OF THE FILM WORLD 14.7 FILM TITLES AND POLITICS 14.8 FILMS AND THE LUCKNOW URDU ACCENT 14.9 SILVER SCREEN ANTHEMS/SONGS 14.10 FILM SONGS, HUMANISM/DEVOTIONALISM 14.11 FILM’S VISION: ‘HINDUSTANIAT’ AND URDU 14.12 CHAPTER SUMMARY 315 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 330 331 332 CHAPTER XV. URDU/HINDI OF AMERICA AND THE WORLD 15.0 INTRODUCTION 15.1 UNITED KINGDOM/EUROPE 15.2 USA AND CANADA 15.2.1 URDU/HINDI – USA 15.2.2 LANGUAGE CENTERS/AUTHORS 15.2.3 URDU/HINDI JOURNALISM 15.2.4 POETRY AND MUSHAIRA CULTURE AND SINGERS’ CONCERT 15.2.5 AMERICAN POETS OF URDU AND HINDI 15.3 URDU/HINDI AROUND THE WORLD 15.4 URDU/HINDI FUTURE IN THE DIASPORA 15.5 CHAPTER SUMMARY 333 333 333 335 336 337 339 339 340 344 346 346 xvii Urdu/Hindi: An Artificial Divide CHAPTER XVI. URDU/HINDI SCRIPTS: COMMON ORIGIN 16.0 INTRODUCTION 16.1 MYTHS ABOUT WRITING 16.2 A TIME LINE OF WRITING (GLOBAL) 16.3 SOUTH ASIANS’ POPULAR VIEW 16.4 PHONETIC ALPHABETS 16.5 EARLIEST ALPHABETS 16.6 ARAMAIC TO GREEK-ROMAN 16.7 URDU’S ARABIC SCRIPT 16.7.1 Miniature Letters/Connectivity/Vowels 16.8 NAGARI (HINDI) SCRIPT 16.9 ARABIC(-URDU)-NAGARI EXCHANGE 16.10 INDIAN WRITING SYSTEM SYLLABIC/ALPHABETIC 16.11 POLITICS OF SCRIPTS AND INDUS VALLEY 16.12 CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER XVII. MESOPOTAMIAN REALISM AND RE-CLASSIFICATION 17.0 INTRODUCTION 17.1 LINGUISTS AND THE CHURCH 17.2 MESOPOTAMIAN CIVILIZATION 17.3 LINGUISTIC ISSUES AND RECLASSIFICATION 17.3.1 Hypothetical Phonemes of PIE 17.3.2 Features of IE and Semitic 17.3.3 Degeneration and Glotto Chronology 17.4 TATSAM AND TAD-BHAV: DILEMMA/DECEPTIONS 17.5 MESOPOTAMIA ANCIENT FAMILY (MAF) 17.6 NEW CLASSIFICATION 17.6.1 The New Classification: Three Grand Super-Families 17.7 MEINDO-ASIATIC (MEIA) SUPER FAMILY 17.7.1 MEIA Cultural Dimension 17.7.2 Linguistic Links MEIA 347 347 347 349 350 350 351 353 353 356 357 358 358 360 361 363 363 364 366 368 368 368 369 371 372 377 378 381 381 385 17.8 HINDUSTANI-SOUTH ASIAN OR A SUPER FAMILY 17.9 CHAPTER SUMMARY 385 387 BIBLIOGRAPHY 389 INDEX 397 xviii Transliteration for Urdu/Hindi Words *Note: Transliteration is based on S. K. Chatterji (1972) pp. XXV-XXXIV 1 FOREWORD The story of Urdu/Hindi, the lingua franca of the Indo-Pakistani people, is the story of one language with two separate scripts and with two names: Hindi, when written in Nagari, and Urdu, when written in Arabic. This book is thorough, complete, and free from religious dogmas, and the theories it elaborates are based solely on evidence derived from studies of evolution, integrated with studies of man’s oldest language, Sumerian. It exposes the Europeans’ policy (led by British India) in pioneering the concept of mythical races linked to linguistic families, i.e., Semitic, and Aryan/IE, which led to anti-Semitism, religious nationalism, and India’s religionbased partition and politics. The story of the division of language mirrors the latter policy, which is unraveled in the book. Adopting the most recent evidence of the evolution of human language, starting from an early base in Africa, the book records its dispersal outward from the Middle East, or Mesopotamia, by farmers, and traces the creation of new names, such as IE, Semitic, and Dravidian. The book presents a cumulative/synthetic plan describing Urdu’s evolution over some 10,000–12,000 years with major contributions from India’s two oldest language families, Austric-Munda and Dravidian, followed much later by others such as Sanskrit, Arabic, and Persian; this apparently unsettles the currently held view of Urdu/Hindi as a daughter dialect of Sanskrit, a 19th-century idea rooted in Hindu religious myth, the German myth of an Aryan race and its supposed hypothetical language proto-Indo European (PIE) — a scholarly invention — the presumed mother of IE, SKT, and grandmother of Latin and other languages which have been said to be derived from them. A major and also unique segment on Mesopotamian languages reveals the origin of Dravidian, Semitic, Arabic, and Indo-European (IE), including Sanskrit, in the Middle East as hybrids of the simplest Sumerian, Elamite, etc., refuting all racial/religious claims of PIE, HEB, and SKT. The evolution of English is cited in parallel in the book, and is shown to originate not from a dissolution of PIE/ Gothic but to be a cumulative from Pictic, Celtic, Latin, Old French, and AngloSaxon German. 3 Urdu/Hindi: An Artificial Divide A new classification based on grammar, syntax, vocabulary, and geography, and free from religion/racial myth, is presented as the other thesis in the book. As a work of history the book carries a message, especially for the Indo-Pakistani people, as it uncovers the very first vector, “mythical/racial” linguistics, as a proximate cause for the partition, and also for escalating Hindu vs. Muslim, and Aryan vs. Dravidian polemics. Urdu’s history is also enmeshed with man’s oldest (written) religious ideas/ terms, which were written down in Mesopotamia, e.g., names of gods, i.e., Indira, Mitra, Siva, Allah, rab, etc., which are shared by Muslims, Hindus, Jews, and Christians, and is enmeshed as well with Mesopotamia’s rich vocabulary and grammar — shared among Arabic, Sanskrit, Dravidian, and Persian; these topics remain isolated in the obscurity of advanced scholarship. The book may be seen as a peace mission with a global perspective, free from mythical dogma. The history of languages, culture, and religion from about 300 BC onwards has divided man into Hindu, Muslim, Christian, and other groups; the history between 300 BC and 3000 BC can reunite him to a common heritage of culture, religious ideas, sciences, and a common linguistic melting pot with a single shared script in Mesopotamia, centered at Iraq, and inclusive of its eastern end (western India) and western (Egypt/Greece) range of influence. Besides this shared heritage, the Indo-Pakistani people will find another scientific perspective in the book, their advent from common genetic parents, termed “Adam # 5 and Eve G,” mutant/migrants from Africa. A synthetic and evolution-based work, the book involves many disciplines. The author, a physician, had already learned six languages: Urdu, Hindi, English, Persian, Arabic, and some SKT before engaging in this effort. Acquiring the requisite knowledge in the other fields implies a rather intensive labor of love, and love of a challenge. Postponing further self-analysis for now, I must highlight some core research findings scattered in the seventeen chapters. The book follows a historic timeline from chapters III to X, including Mesopotamia (chapter III) and India (chapters IV to X), and focuses on the evolution of hybrid Urdu along with a brief cultural review. The first two chapters offer an overview, language classification, and a basic course on phonetic/alphabets and grammar types, i.e., isolating, agglutinating, inf...
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