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Unformatted text preview: Anthropology Test Two Review First Peoples: Beringia: The first people to walk over on the Bering Land Bridge came before 12,000 years ago Would have been more than 650 miles wide and indistinguishable from either side Relatively flat and free of trees and ice Clovis First Model: An archaeological culture during the Paleo-Indian period in North America, defined by a distinctive type of fluted point Named for Clovis Sight in New Mexico o The people were relatively mobile Very long shape with small flute points o Many different tools for different jobs Associated with Mammoths and Mastodons Dates around 10,000 to 9,000 BC Three Wave Model: Three immigration waves are known from linguistic and genetic data o Amerind (18,000 years ago) includes most of the Americas o Na-Dene/Athabaskan (9,000 years ago) includes W North America o Aleut/Eskimo (6,000 years ago) includes Artic North America Paleo-Indian: The period of large game hunters in North America at the end of the Pleistocene First half of the 20 th century but existed extremely early (10,000 8,000 BC) o Lived in the sub artic and with 25-50 people Thinly spread over landscape Egalitarian Societies (no chiefs) Nomadic Lifestyle Heavy reliance on hunting o Especially on large, extinct animals Fluted point very important o Finely worked spear point o Mainly used with the atlatl Folsom Points: An archaeological culture during the Paleo-Indian period in North America, defined by a distinctive type of fluted point and found primarily in the Great Plains Associated with bison kill sites After the Clovis tradition: 9000-8500 BC Monte Verde: Located in Chile and dates to at least 13,000 years ago (Pre-clovis) Contains the remains of extinct elephants and other animals in association with stone tools Incredible preservation in a swampy area with stream o Well excavated by Tom Delahay Small group who occupied almost year-round and relied on fishing and smaller animals Olmec: the Aztec name for the late prehispanic inhabitants of the Gulf Coast region of Mexico Olmec Horizon: A widely distributed set of cultural traits and artifact assemblages with distribution and chronology suggest they spread rapidly Often composed of artifacts associated with a shared symbolic or ritual system Movement of ideas and related symbols o Includes the Were-Jaguar San Lorenzo: Along the river on levies 1200 to 900 BC during the initial olmec period Up to 10,000 inhabitants Center is large artificial platform o Many monumental sculptures o Residence in center Red Palace Elaborate building with imported stone Near the basalt workshops La Venta: Intermediate Olmec period from 900-600 BC o Was the second Olmec City was recreated three Universe levels Site as cosmogram o Recreated depictions within architecture on the site o Aligned with 8 West of North o Large pyramid o Large plazas with buried offerings...
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