Unformatted text preview: ENGLISH 2004 I FOREWORD
To the Students:
Learning is a continuous process. Writing can be one of the
most challenging parts of it. To improve the chance for success, it’s
always a good idea to prepare you in this area.
EN 2004 is designed to help you achieve the objectives of technical
writing such as; clarity, conciseness, accuracy, organization and ethics
Hence, this book comes with commitment to train and
for good works and responsible citizenship. It makes you aware of the
need to make full use of your skills in reaching out to others.
It is hoped that after you have learned all the concepts
and skills taught in this book you will come out more prepared and
confident to face more difficult challenges in real world. II This Book belongs to:
…………………………………… Level: Teacher’s
……………………………… Name: III Table of Contents
Unit 1 The Nature of Business English……. . . … . .1-19
Unit 2 Technical Writing Process……… . . . . . .. . .20-32
Unit 3 Technical Writing Style… . … … … . . . . . 33-47
Technical Writing Application… … . .
. . . …48-62
IV Unit 5
Formal Reports… … … … … … … . .
Unit 6 Formatting … … … … … … … … ……92-103
Unit 7 Recommendation and Feasibility Reports…104-117
Unit 8 Proposals……………………………… 118-136
Unit 9 Technical Writing:Progress Reports………137-148
Unit 10 Oral Reports……………………………
149-162 V Unit 11 Letters………………………….163- 177
Unit 12 Job Application Material………..178-190
Unit 13 Using Visual Aids……………… 191-204
Unit 14 Minutes of Meeting……………..205-218
Unit 15 Sentence Construction…………...219-232 VI VII UNIT 1 The Nature of
Business English 1 ชชุดววิชา ENGLISH 2004 แผนการสอนประจจาหนน่วย หนน่วยททท 1 หลลักการของอลังกฤษธชุรกวิจ
4.1.1 7 c’s ของววิธก
4.2.6 บอกความแตกตส่างจดหมายธธุรกวิจ 3 รรูปแบบไดร
4.3.1 พวิจารณา 7 c’s ในการเขธียนจดหมายธธุรกวิจไดร
4.3.2 เขธียนจดหมายธธุรกวิจอยส่างมธีประสวิทธวิภาพไดรเปจ็ นอยส่างดธี
4.3.3 เขธียนจดหมายธธุรกวิจ 3 รรูปแบบไดรเปจ็ นอยส่างดธี 4.4 กวิจกรรททใ
2 4.4.1 การอภวิปราย การเขธียน 7 c’s ของจดหมายธธุรกวิจ
4.4.2 ววิเคราะหค์องคค์ประกอบของจดหมายธธุรกวิจ การนนาเสนอจดหมาย
ธธุรกวิจใน 3 รรูปแบบ EN 2004
Topics: The Nature of Business English
A. The Seven C’s of Business Letter Writing
B. Parts of a Business letter
C. Business Letter Format Objectives:
The students should be able to: know the seven requirements of a good business letter. identify the parts of a Business letter. describe the parts of a Business letter. write each part of the business letter correctly. analyze and learn the format of a business letter. differentiate the tree business letter format.
The students are expected to: consider the seven C’s in writing their business letter. write an effective business letter. write a business letter in three different format.
Teaching Activity Program: Discussion on the seven C’s of business Letter Writing. Analyze of the Parts of the Business Letter.
Presenting the Three Format of Business Letter. 3 Unit 1
THE NATURE OF BUSINESS ENGLISH
In technical-writing courses, the main focus is typically the technical
report, due toward the end of the semester. Just about everything you do
in the course is aimed at developing skills needed to produce that report.
Of course, some technical-writing courses begin with a resume and
application letter (often known as the cover letter), but after that you plan
the technical report, and then write a proposal in which you propose to
write that report. Then you write short technical papers where you get
accustomed to using things like headings, lists, graphics, and special
notices—not to mention writing about technical subject matter in a clear,
concise, understandable way that is appropriate for a specific audience. The Seven C’s of Business Letter Writing
Effective letter boils down to knowing why you are writing a letter,
understanding your reader’s needs and then clearly writing what you need
to say. Every letter should be clear, human, and helpful as a friendly as the
topics allows. The best letters have a conversational tone and read as if
you were talking to your reader. In brief, then the Seven-C’s letter writing.
You should be Clear
4 Credible 1. Be clear: have a definite purpose for writing and make sure it is
clearly communicated up front. Be bold and connect quickly. In the
midst of the typhoon we needed to be clear on our commands or risk
adverse reactions to the sea.
2. Be complete: include all the necessary facts and background
information to support the message you are communicating. Partial
instructions would not work if we were to survive. Our captain had to
make sure we saw the complete picture. 3. Be concise: keep in mind the reader's knowledge of the subject and 4. 5. 6. 7. their time constraints. Convey the information as quickly and easily
as possible. Keeping it concise (or short) was a life saver, more so
when you needed to react immediately to a changing sea or wind
Be creative: use different formats (vs. straight narrative) to
communicate your message. Q & A format, graphics, Idea lists, etc.
Sometimes hand signals were needed when the wind and the sea
drowned out our ability to hear.
Be considerate: keep your reader's needs in mind as you write. Ask
yourself, 'Why should my reader spend time reading this?' Make it
worthwhile for them to do so! We were motivated to survive, to listen
and to act. Keep in mind your audience or reader might not be as
Be correct: by checking all your information is accurate and timely.
Double- check your spelling, punctuation and grammar. Proof read it
before you send it! We couldn't afford to make mistakes, our lives
depended on it!
Be credible: strive to present yourself from a position of reliability
and competence. Write to reinforce your message and make it more
believable. We needed to trust that our captain, with his experience
in the US Coast Guard knew what he was doing and was telling us for
our own good.
5 Business Letter
A business letter is more formal than a personal letter. It should have a
margin of at least one inch on all four edges. It is always written on
8 ฝ"x11" (or metric equivalent) unlined stationery. Parts of a Business Letter
The date line is used to indicate the date the letter was written. However,
if your letter is completed over a number of days, use the date it was
finished in the date line. When writing to companies within the United
States, use the American date format. (The United States-based
convention for formatting a date places the month before the day. For
example: June 11, 2001. ) Write out the month, day and year two inches
from the top of the page. Depending which format you are using for your
letter, either left justify the date or center it horizontally. 6 Sender’s Address
Including the address of the sender is optional. If you choose to include it,
place the address one line below the date. Do not write the sender’s name
or title, as it is included in the letter’s closing. Include only the street
address, city and zip code. Another option is to include the sender’s
address directly after the closing signature.
The inside address is the recipient’s address. It is always best to write to a
specific individual at the firm to which you are writing. If you do not have
the person’s name, do some research by calling the company or speaking
with employees from the company. Include a personal title such as Ms.,
Mrs., Mr., or Dr. Follow a woman’s preference in being addressed as Miss,
Mrs., or Ms. If you are unsure of a woman’s preference in being
addressed, use Ms. If there is a possibility that the person to whom you
are writing is a Dr. or has some other title, use that title. Usually, people
will not mind being addressed by a higher title than they actually possess.
To write the address, use the U.S. Post Office Format. For international
addresses, type the name of the country in all-capital letters on the last
line. The inside address begins one line below the sender’s address or one
inch below the date. It should be left justified, no matter which format you
Use the same name as the inside address, including the personal title. If
you know the person and typically address them by their first name, it is
acceptable to use only the first name in the salutation (i.e., Dear Lucy:). In
all other cases, however, use the personal title and full name followed by a
colon. Leave one line blank after the salutation.
If you don’t know a reader’s gender, use a nonsexist salutation, such as
"To Whom it May Concern." It is also acceptable to use the full name in a
salutation if you cannot determine gender. For example, you might write
Dear Chris Harmon: if you were unsure of Chris's gender. Body
For block and modified block formats, single space and left justify each
paragraph within the body of the letter. Leave a blank line between each
7 paragraph. When writing a business letter, be careful to remember that
conciseness is very important. In the first paragraph, consider a friendly
opening and then a statement of the main point. The next paragraph
should begin justifying the importance of the main point. In the next few
paragraphs, continue justification with background information and supporting details. The
closing paragraph should restate the purpose of the letter and, in some
cases, request some type of action.
The closing begins at the same horizontal point as your date and one line
after the last body paragraph. Capitalize the first word only (i.e., Thank
you) and leave four lines between the closing and the sender’s name for a
signature. If a colon follows the salutation, a comma should follow the
closing; otherwise, there is no punctuation after the closing.
If you have enclosed any documents along with the letter, such as a
resume, you indicate this simply by typing Enclosures one line below the
closing. As an option, you may list the name of each document you are
including in the envelope. For instance, if you have included many
documents and need to insure that the recipient is aware of each
document, it may be a good idea to list the names.
Typist initials are used to indicate the person who typed the letter. If you
typed the letter yourself, omit the typist initials. Business Letter Format
Most students admit to having learned in junior high school or in high
school about writing business letters and about conventional formats for
them. When it comes down to writing them, however, all too many
students seem not to know how and to be unwilling to look up the forms
(or perhaps they don't have a reference about using English). This web
8 page was prepared so that you would have an easily obtained description
of what to do.
When a business that has letterhead stationery writes a business letter,
the first page of the letter uses paper with the printed letterhead and
succeeding pages, if any, use matching quality and color sheets without
the letterhead. A business with very good quality printing might generate
the letterhead graphic with an image embedded in a word processor
document. An individual normally won't use letterhead stationery and
won't attempt to fake it. An attempt at letterhead that produces a tacky
result or that conveys pompousness produces effects that you want to
In a business letter, everything that you "type" should be in the same
typeface and in the same font size. You should use "formal English" and
you should very carefully check your grammar and spelling. You should
arrange things neatly. You should consider the appearance of the letter
"at arm's length" as well as close up -- use white space to produce an
In a conventional business letter you should see these parts, in order top
to bottom: A return address
This item is the postal address of the author of the letter. Each line
of it is left justified -- either at a tab stop that puts the information
toward the right side of the page or at the left margin. Normally the
return address is at the top of the page, but you can move it down a
little to improve over-all appearance. Do not put email addresses
here -- if you need to convey an email address, do it in the body of
the letter. The date
This item is the date of the letter. It is aligned with the return
address. Formerly there was never whitespace (blank lines) between
the return address and the date, but some current styles allow blank
lines. An inside address
This item duplicates what goes on the envelope. It has the formal
name of the intended recipient of the letter and that person's postal
address. Each line of the inside address is left justified at the left
margin. No email addresses appear here. You can put blank lines
between the date and the inside address to fill the page better and to
improve the "arm's length" appearance.
9 A salutation
This item formally addresses the recipient. If the addressee is not a
friend, you should write "Dear Mr. Brown:" or "Dear Mrs. Smith:" or
"Dear Ms. Jones:" or "Dear Dr. Greene:" or the like. A letter to a close
associate might say "Dear Mike:" or "Dear Sally:”
There is at least one line of white space between the inside address
and the salutation. You can put a little more to improve the over-all
Before the days of political correctness a letter to an organization
would begin "Dear Sir:" or "Dear Sirs:" or "Gentlemen:" -- for
example, if the envelope were addressed "Personnel Director, XYZ
Company, City, State" you might do this. These days you should
probably make an effort to get a name, but... The body of the letter.
The body is single spaced.
Ordinarily the body contains more than one paragraph. Avoid both
extremely short and very long paragraphs.
You can use either indented paragraphs (in which the first line is
indented more than the rest) or block paragraphs (in which all lines
begin at the left margin). With block paragraphs you must leave
extra white space between paragraphs -- one blank line or one
"empty paragraph" is often used, but you can also use Word's extra
space before or after paragraph option (Format --> Paragraph...); the
extra space should probably not exceed the size of an empty
paragraph. With indented paragraphs, extra space between
paragraphs is common, but optional. Indented paragraphs should be
avoided if the return address was aligned at the left margin.
Special effects like bulleted lists and paragraphs whose left and
right edges are both indented should be used very sparingly -- avoid
them as much as you can. Likewise, consider whether having your
paragraphs fully justified (both left and right edges squared off) will
make the letter look too much like a form letter or piece of junk
mail. A closing
This item is something like "Yours truly," or "Sincerely,". It is
normally vertically aligned with the return address. (See the
examples.) Space for a handwritten signature.
10 Typed name of letter author
This item is aligned with the return address, date, and closing. Leave
enough white space above it for a (handwritten) signature. If you
have a job title and this letter is being written as part of that job, it
is common to type the job title directly below the typed name (single
spaced). An individual writing a letter normally doesn't include a
job-title line. cc:/Typist/enclosures
An individual writing a letter usually omits these items.
It is assumed that you will keep a copy of the letter. If you are
supplying copies to people other that the addressee, it is common to
put a "cc:" list at the bottom left of the last page ("cc" originally
stood for "carbon copy" to). When the letter is prepared by a
professional typist, it is common for the initials of the typist to be
supplied at her bottom. If there are enclosures, that fact is often
noted there too. Examples
A business letter with the return address to the right and using indented
paragraphs. 11 12 A business letter with the return address at the left margin and using
block paragraphs. 13 The Block Form
1707 Guernesey Lane
Austin, TX 78759
6 June 1997
John G. Holloway
4505 W. Tom Thumb Ave.
Austin, TX 78703
Dear Mr. Holloway:
I am writing in response to your classified ad in the Austin-American Statesman
for Assistant Director of Materials Management. Based on my experience and
continuing education, I believe that I am qualified to fill this position.
For the past four years, I have been employed in the materials divisions with two
different manufacturing companies, XETEL Corporation and Fisher Controls
International. My experience there has ranged from controlling, buying,
analyzing, to planning materials.
Currently, I am attending night school at Austin Community College where I lack
only nine hours to complete my Associate Degree in Business Administration.
When I complete this degree, I hope to return to St. Edward's University to
complete my course work for a degree in Technical Business.
Brackenridge Hospital and the Children's Hospital supply such a vital service to
the Travis county area that I would be proud to be a part of your team. I hope to
get a chance to discuss my qualifications and goals with you. I can be reached at
(512) 877-0991 after 5 p.m.
Sincerely yours, John M. Owens
Encl.: resume 14 Semi - Block
3303 West Valley Cove
Round Rock, Texas 78664
August 5, 1990
JD Employee Credit Bank of Texas
P.O. Box 32345
Austin, Texas 78745
Dear Personnel Assistant:
I am writing about your newspaper ad in the August 1 Austin-American
Statesman concerning your need for an experienced programmer in the database
environment. I believe that I have the qualifications and experience that you are
As for my experience with database programming, I have worked for the past year
as a programmer/analyst in the Query database environment for Advanced
Software Design. In that capacity, I have converted a large database that was
originally written in a customized C language database into the Query database
environment. I am currently working on a contract with Texas Parks and Wildlife
to make major modifications to its existing Query database application. On both
of these assignments, I have also served as customer contact person.
Related to this database-programming experience is the work I have been doing
to write and market an automated documentation utility for Query database
applications. This product was written using a combination of C, Pascal, and
Query programming languages. I was responsible for the authorship of the Pascal
and Query programs. The Pascal programs are completely responsible for the
user interface and system integration management.
Enclosed you will find a resume, which will give you additional information on my
background and qualifications. I would welcome a chance to talk further with you
about the position you are seeking to fill. I can be reached by phone between
9:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. at (512) 545-0098.
15 Alternative Block Letter
Green Tree Freight Co., Inc.
Columbus, Ohio 45453
March 26, 19XX
Mrs. Phoebe F. Hughes
Complete Table, Inc.
P.O. Box 3132
Austin, TX 78703
Subj.: March 24 letter about damaged freight
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