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Unformatted text preview: ENGLISH 2004 I FOREWORD To the Students: Learning is a continuous process. Writing can be one of the most challenging parts of it. To improve the chance for success, it’s always a good idea to prepare you in this area. EN 2004 is designed to help you achieve the objectives of technical writing such as; clarity, conciseness, accuracy, organization and ethics Hence, this book comes with commitment to train and prepare you for good works and responsible citizenship. It makes you aware of the need to make full use of your skills in reaching out to others. It is hoped that after you have learned all the concepts and skills taught in this book you will come out more prepared and confident to face more difficult challenges in real world. II This Book belongs to: Name: ………………………………………... Year …………………………………… Level: Teacher’s ……………………………… Name: III Table of Contents Unit 1 The Nature of Business English……. . . … . .1-19 Unit 2 Technical Writing Process……… . . . . . .. . .20-32 Unit 3 Technical Writing Style… . … … … . . . . . 33-47 Unit 4 Technical Writing Application… … . . . . . …48-62 IV Unit 5 Formal Reports… … … … … … … . . … .63-91 Unit 6 Formatting … … … … … … … … ……92-103 Unit 7 Recommendation and Feasibility Reports…104-117 Unit 8 Proposals……………………………… 118-136 Unit 9 Technical Writing:Progress Reports………137-148 Unit 10 Oral Reports…………………………… 149-162 V Unit 11 Letters………………………….163- 177 Unit 12 Job Application Material………..178-190 Unit 13 Using Visual Aids……………… 191-204 Unit 14 Minutes of Meeting……………..205-218 Unit 15 Sentence Construction…………...219-232 VI VII UNIT 1 The Nature of Business English 1 ชชุดววิชา ENGLISH 2004 แผนการสอนประจจาหนน่วย หนน่วยททท 1 หลลักการของอลังกฤษธชุรกวิจ 4.1 หลัวขข้อ 4.1.1 7 c’s ของววิธก ธี ารเขธียนจดหมายธธุรกวิจ 4.1.2 องคค์ประกอบของจดหมายธธุรกวิจ 4.1.3 รรูปแบบของจดหมายธธุรกวิจ 4.2 วลัตถชุประสงคค นนักศศึกษาควรจะสามารถ 4.2.1 รรรูถง ศึ เจจ็ดววิธธีในการเขธียนจดหมายธธุรกวิจทธีที่ดธี 4.2.2 แยกแยะองคค์ประกอบของจดหมายธธุรกวิจทธีที่ดธีไดร 4.2.3 อธวิบายองคค์ประกอบจดหมายธธุรกวิจไดร 4.2.4 เขธียนองคค์ประกอบทธุกสส่วนของจดหมายธธุรกวิจไดรอยส่างถรูกตอรง 4.2.5 ววิเคราะหค์และเรธียนรรร รู รูปแบบของจดหมายธธุรกวิจ 4.2.6 บอกความแตกตส่างจดหมายธธุรกวิจ 3 รรูปแบบไดร 4.3 ผลททค ท าดวน่าจะไดข้รลับ นนักศศึกษาจะมธีความสามารถ 4.3.1 พวิจารณา 7 c’s ในการเขธียนจดหมายธธุรกวิจไดร 4.3.2 เขธียนจดหมายธธุรกวิจอยส่างมธีประสวิทธวิภาพไดรเปจ็ นอยส่างดธี 4.3.3 เขธียนจดหมายธธุรกวิจ 3 รรูปแบบไดรเปจ็ นอยส่างดธี 4.4 กวิจกรรททใ ท ชข้ในการเรทยนการสอน 2 4.4.1 การอภวิปราย การเขธียน 7 c’s ของจดหมายธธุรกวิจ 4.4.2 ววิเคราะหค์องคค์ประกอบของจดหมายธธุรกวิจ การนนาเสนอจดหมาย ธธุรกวิจใน 3 รรูปแบบ EN 2004 Unit 1: Topics: The Nature of Business English A. The Seven C’s of Business Letter Writing B. Parts of a Business letter C. Business Letter Format Objectives: The students should be able to: know the seven requirements of a good business letter. identify the parts of a Business letter. describe the parts of a Business letter. write each part of the business letter correctly. analyze and learn the format of a business letter. differentiate the tree business letter format. Outcomes: The students are expected to: consider the seven C’s in writing their business letter. write an effective business letter. write a business letter in three different format. Teaching Activity Program: Discussion on the seven C’s of business Letter Writing. Analyze of the Parts of the Business Letter. Presenting the Three Format of Business Letter. 3 Unit 1 THE NATURE OF BUSINESS ENGLISH In technical-writing courses, the main focus is typically the technical report, due toward the end of the semester. Just about everything you do in the course is aimed at developing skills needed to produce that report. Of course, some technical-writing courses begin with a resume and application letter (often known as the cover letter), but after that you plan the technical report, and then write a proposal in which you propose to write that report. Then you write short technical papers where you get accustomed to using things like headings, lists, graphics, and special notices—not to mention writing about technical subject matter in a clear, concise, understandable way that is appropriate for a specific audience. The Seven C’s of Business Letter Writing Effective letter boils down to knowing why you are writing a letter, understanding your reader’s needs and then clearly writing what you need to say. Every letter should be clear, human, and helpful as a friendly as the topics allows. The best letters have a conversational tone and read as if you were talking to your reader. In brief, then the Seven-C’s letter writing. You should be Clear Complete Concise Creative Considerate Correct 4 Credible 1. Be clear: have a definite purpose for writing and make sure it is clearly communicated up front. Be bold and connect quickly. In the midst of the typhoon we needed to be clear on our commands or risk adverse reactions to the sea. 2. Be complete: include all the necessary facts and background information to support the message you are communicating. Partial instructions would not work if we were to survive. Our captain had to make sure we saw the complete picture. 3. Be concise: keep in mind the reader's knowledge of the subject and 4. 5. 6. 7. their time constraints. Convey the information as quickly and easily as possible. Keeping it concise (or short) was a life saver, more so when you needed to react immediately to a changing sea or wind pattern. Be creative: use different formats (vs. straight narrative) to communicate your message. Q & A format, graphics, Idea lists, etc. Sometimes hand signals were needed when the wind and the sea drowned out our ability to hear. Be considerate: keep your reader's needs in mind as you write. Ask yourself, 'Why should my reader spend time reading this?' Make it worthwhile for them to do so! We were motivated to survive, to listen and to act. Keep in mind your audience or reader might not be as receptive. Be correct: by checking all your information is accurate and timely. Double- check your spelling, punctuation and grammar. Proof read it before you send it! We couldn't afford to make mistakes, our lives depended on it! Be credible: strive to present yourself from a position of reliability and competence. Write to reinforce your message and make it more believable. We needed to trust that our captain, with his experience in the US Coast Guard knew what he was doing and was telling us for our own good. 5 Business Letter A business letter is more formal than a personal letter. It should have a margin of at least one inch on all four edges. It is always written on 8 ฝ"x11" (or metric equivalent) unlined stationery. Parts of a Business Letter Date The date line is used to indicate the date the letter was written. However, if your letter is completed over a number of days, use the date it was finished in the date line. When writing to companies within the United States, use the American date format. (The United States-based convention for formatting a date places the month before the day. For example: June 11, 2001. ) Write out the month, day and year two inches from the top of the page. Depending which format you are using for your letter, either left justify the date or center it horizontally. 6 Sender’s Address Including the address of the sender is optional. If you choose to include it, place the address one line below the date. Do not write the sender’s name or title, as it is included in the letter’s closing. Include only the street address, city and zip code. Another option is to include the sender’s address directly after the closing signature. Inside Address The inside address is the recipient’s address. It is always best to write to a specific individual at the firm to which you are writing. If you do not have the person’s name, do some research by calling the company or speaking with employees from the company. Include a personal title such as Ms., Mrs., Mr., or Dr. Follow a woman’s preference in being addressed as Miss, Mrs., or Ms. If you are unsure of a woman’s preference in being addressed, use Ms. If there is a possibility that the person to whom you are writing is a Dr. or has some other title, use that title. Usually, people will not mind being addressed by a higher title than they actually possess. To write the address, use the U.S. Post Office Format. For international addresses, type the name of the country in all-capital letters on the last line. The inside address begins one line below the sender’s address or one inch below the date. It should be left justified, no matter which format you are using. Salutation Use the same name as the inside address, including the personal title. If you know the person and typically address them by their first name, it is acceptable to use only the first name in the salutation (i.e., Dear Lucy:). In all other cases, however, use the personal title and full name followed by a colon. Leave one line blank after the salutation. If you don’t know a reader’s gender, use a nonsexist salutation, such as "To Whom it May Concern." It is also acceptable to use the full name in a salutation if you cannot determine gender. For example, you might write Dear Chris Harmon: if you were unsure of Chris's gender. Body For block and modified block formats, single space and left justify each paragraph within the body of the letter. Leave a blank line between each 7 paragraph. When writing a business letter, be careful to remember that conciseness is very important. In the first paragraph, consider a friendly opening and then a statement of the main point. The next paragraph should begin justifying the importance of the main point. In the next few paragraphs, continue justification with background information and supporting details. The closing paragraph should restate the purpose of the letter and, in some cases, request some type of action. Closing The closing begins at the same horizontal point as your date and one line after the last body paragraph. Capitalize the first word only (i.e., Thank you) and leave four lines between the closing and the sender’s name for a signature. If a colon follows the salutation, a comma should follow the closing; otherwise, there is no punctuation after the closing. Enclosures If you have enclosed any documents along with the letter, such as a resume, you indicate this simply by typing Enclosures one line below the closing. As an option, you may list the name of each document you are including in the envelope. For instance, if you have included many documents and need to insure that the recipient is aware of each document, it may be a good idea to list the names. Typist Initials Typist initials are used to indicate the person who typed the letter. If you typed the letter yourself, omit the typist initials. Business Letter Format Most students admit to having learned in junior high school or in high school about writing business letters and about conventional formats for them. When it comes down to writing them, however, all too many students seem not to know how and to be unwilling to look up the forms (or perhaps they don't have a reference about using English). This web 8 page was prepared so that you would have an easily obtained description of what to do. When a business that has letterhead stationery writes a business letter, the first page of the letter uses paper with the printed letterhead and succeeding pages, if any, use matching quality and color sheets without the letterhead. A business with very good quality printing might generate the letterhead graphic with an image embedded in a word processor document. An individual normally won't use letterhead stationery and won't attempt to fake it. An attempt at letterhead that produces a tacky result or that conveys pompousness produces effects that you want to avoid. In a business letter, everything that you "type" should be in the same typeface and in the same font size. You should use "formal English" and you should very carefully check your grammar and spelling. You should arrange things neatly. You should consider the appearance of the letter "at arm's length" as well as close up -- use white space to produce an attractive sheet. In a conventional business letter you should see these parts, in order top to bottom: A return address This item is the postal address of the author of the letter. Each line of it is left justified -- either at a tab stop that puts the information toward the right side of the page or at the left margin. Normally the return address is at the top of the page, but you can move it down a little to improve over-all appearance. Do not put email addresses here -- if you need to convey an email address, do it in the body of the letter. The date This item is the date of the letter. It is aligned with the return address. Formerly there was never whitespace (blank lines) between the return address and the date, but some current styles allow blank lines. An inside address This item duplicates what goes on the envelope. It has the formal name of the intended recipient of the letter and that person's postal address. Each line of the inside address is left justified at the left margin. No email addresses appear here. You can put blank lines between the date and the inside address to fill the page better and to improve the "arm's length" appearance. 9 A salutation This item formally addresses the recipient. If the addressee is not a friend, you should write "Dear Mr. Brown:" or "Dear Mrs. Smith:" or "Dear Ms. Jones:" or "Dear Dr. Greene:" or the like. A letter to a close associate might say "Dear Mike:" or "Dear Sally:” There is at least one line of white space between the inside address and the salutation. You can put a little more to improve the over-all appearance. Before the days of political correctness a letter to an organization would begin "Dear Sir:" or "Dear Sirs:" or "Gentlemen:" -- for example, if the envelope were addressed "Personnel Director, XYZ Company, City, State" you might do this. These days you should probably make an effort to get a name, but... The body of the letter. The body is single spaced. Ordinarily the body contains more than one paragraph. Avoid both extremely short and very long paragraphs. You can use either indented paragraphs (in which the first line is indented more than the rest) or block paragraphs (in which all lines begin at the left margin). With block paragraphs you must leave extra white space between paragraphs -- one blank line or one "empty paragraph" is often used, but you can also use Word's extra space before or after paragraph option (Format --> Paragraph...); the extra space should probably not exceed the size of an empty paragraph. With indented paragraphs, extra space between paragraphs is common, but optional. Indented paragraphs should be avoided if the return address was aligned at the left margin. Special effects like bulleted lists and paragraphs whose left and right edges are both indented should be used very sparingly -- avoid them as much as you can. Likewise, consider whether having your paragraphs fully justified (both left and right edges squared off) will make the letter look too much like a form letter or piece of junk mail. A closing This item is something like "Yours truly," or "Sincerely,". It is normally vertically aligned with the return address. (See the examples.) Space for a handwritten signature. 10 Typed name of letter author This item is aligned with the return address, date, and closing. Leave enough white space above it for a (handwritten) signature. If you have a job title and this letter is being written as part of that job, it is common to type the job title directly below the typed name (single spaced). An individual writing a letter normally doesn't include a job-title line. cc:/Typist/enclosures An individual writing a letter usually omits these items. It is assumed that you will keep a copy of the letter. If you are supplying copies to people other that the addressee, it is common to put a "cc:" list at the bottom left of the last page ("cc" originally stood for "carbon copy" to). When the letter is prepared by a professional typist, it is common for the initials of the typist to be supplied at her bottom. If there are enclosures, that fact is often noted there too. Examples A business letter with the return address to the right and using indented paragraphs. 11 12 A business letter with the return address at the left margin and using block paragraphs. 13 The Block Form 1707 Guernesey Lane Austin, TX 78759 6 June 1997 John G. Holloway Brackenridge Hospital 4505 W. Tom Thumb Ave. Austin, TX 78703 Dear Mr. Holloway: I am writing in response to your classified ad in the Austin-American Statesman for Assistant Director of Materials Management. Based on my experience and continuing education, I believe that I am qualified to fill this position. For the past four years, I have been employed in the materials divisions with two different manufacturing companies, XETEL Corporation and Fisher Controls International. My experience there has ranged from controlling, buying, analyzing, to planning materials. Currently, I am attending night school at Austin Community College where I lack only nine hours to complete my Associate Degree in Business Administration. When I complete this degree, I hope to return to St. Edward's University to complete my course work for a degree in Technical Business. Brackenridge Hospital and the Children's Hospital supply such a vital service to the Travis county area that I would be proud to be a part of your team. I hope to get a chance to discuss my qualifications and goals with you. I can be reached at (512) 877-0991 after 5 p.m. Sincerely yours, John M. Owens Encl.: resume 14 Semi - Block 3303 West Valley Cove Round Rock, Texas 78664 August 5, 1990 Personnel Assistant JD Employee Credit Bank of Texas P.O. Box 32345 Austin, Texas 78745 Dear Personnel Assistant: I am writing about your newspaper ad in the August 1 Austin-American Statesman concerning your need for an experienced programmer in the database environment. I believe that I have the qualifications and experience that you are looking for. As for my experience with database programming, I have worked for the past year as a programmer/analyst in the Query database environment for Advanced Software Design. In that capacity, I have converted a large database that was originally written in a customized C language database into the Query database environment. I am currently working on a contract with Texas Parks and Wildlife to make major modifications to its existing Query database application. On both of these assignments, I have also served as customer contact person. Related to this database-programming experience is the work I have been doing to write and market an automated documentation utility for Query database applications. This product was written using a combination of C, Pascal, and Query programming languages. I was responsible for the authorship of the Pascal and Query programs. The Pascal programs are completely responsible for the user interface and system integration management. Enclosed you will find a resume, which will give you additional information on my background and qualifications. I would welcome a chance to talk further with you about the position you are seeking to fill. I can be reached by phone between 9:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. at (512) 545-0098. Sincerely, Virginia Rementeria Encl.: resume 15 Alternative Block Letter Green Tree Freight Co., Inc. Columbus, Ohio 45453 (315) 565-6789 March 26, 19XX Mrs. Phoebe F. Hughes Complete Table, Inc. P.O. Box 3132 Austin, TX 78703 Subj.: March 24 letter about damaged freight Dear...
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