NURS-6521N-42Week 6 DiscussionSelected Musculoskeletal Disorder: OsteoarthritisLavoris Brown’s Main PostOverview of Osteoarthritis (OA)Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent form of arthritis and the most prevalent age-related (affects mostly middle-age to advanced-age adults) synovial joint disorder; formerly called degenerative joint disease (DJD); is a progressive disorder that can result in long-term pain, muscle weakness (principally if a weight-bearing joint is affected), and limited range of motion; can cause damage to any joint in the body, but mostly affects the joints in one’s hips, hands, spine (lumbar and cervical), great toes, and knees; is a disease of all parts of a joint which include the cartilage, ligaments, joint lining, and bone. Characteristics of OA include formation of new bone at joint margins (osteophytosis), damage to and loss of articular cartilage (the primary defect associated with the disorder), joint capsule thickening, and inflammation (of joint lining-synovium); occurs when the cartilage that protects the ends of one’s bones wears down or deteriorates as he/she ages (Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, & Reinhold, 2017; Huether & McCance, 2017; Mayo Clinic, 2017; Udell, 2017). Causes of and Risk Factors for Osteoarthritis (OA)There are two forms of OA: 1) Primary (or idiopathic) and 2) Secondary. Primary OA is the most prevalently diagnosed form of OA which is the result just normal ‘wear and tear’, or ‘physiologic changes that occur’ as one ages (Arcangelo, et al., 2017; Smith, 2017). Secondary OA results from conditions that produce a change in the microenvironment of the cartilage such as inherited conditions (chondrodystrophy, hemochromatosis, inflammatory OA, metabolic defects [Wilson disease], infections) and traumatic injuries (Arcangelo, et al., 2017; Smith, 2017). Caution must be taken in developing a diagnosis of inflammatory osteoarthritis vs. “typical osteoarthritis” or “inflammatory arthritis that affects the fingers, such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) or psoriatic arthritis” because the treatment is different for each. Inflammatory OA is typically seen in middle-age women and affects the middle and last joints of the fingers (Howard, n.d.).Modifiable risk factors for OA include obesity (greatest risk factor for OA in mostly women affecting the hips and knees), occupational (jobs requiring heavy-lifting, etc.), sedentary lifestyle and/or inactivity, and previously joint injury. Nonmodifiable risk factors include race, heredity or genetics, age, and gender (Arcangelo, et al., 2017; Smith, 2017).
- Summer '15
- Arcangelo, Udell