NURS-6521N-42 Week 5 Discussion Lavoris Brown’s Main Post Seizures vs Seizure Disorder Seizures can occur in anyone, regardless of age. A seizure is characterized by a disturbance of electrical activity in the brain that is brief, sudden, and uncontrollable, that is the result of abnormal excessive discharges of cortical neurons. Seizures can cause changes in movement or feeling, behavior, and level of consciousness. Having a seizure one time does not constitute a seizure disorder. Seizure disorders do not represent a specific disease entity, but rather a manifestation of disease; and are characterized by the presence of two or more seizures or the tendency to have recurrent seizures. There are many types of seizures which vary in how and where they began in the brain; they also range in their severity. A seizure can last anywhere from 30 seconds to two minutes; however, any seizure that last more than five minutes constitutes a medical emergency. The etiology of seizures is generally not known but can occur because of a closed-head injury, illicit drug use, a cerebrovascular accident, an infection in the brain (such as meningitis), extreme alcohol intoxication (poisoning) or withdrawal, a brain tumor, lack of sleep, hyponatremia, a high fever, or other infections (Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, & Reinhold, 2017; Huether & McCance, 2017; Mayo Clinic, 2018). Seizure Disorder: Epilepsy Epilepsy is a fourth most prevalent chronic neurological disorder and affects all age groups; its meaning is the same as ‘seizure disorder’; is a condition that includes a range of linked conditions with a wide range of seizure types and varying control among different individuals; can cause other health problems, and is characterized by recurrent, unpredictable seizures (Epilepsy Foundation, 2014). In 65 percent of people with epilepsy, the etiology is unknown. Other causes of epilepsy include congenital malformations, vascular abnormalities, and trauma (Arcangelo, et al., 2017). Frequent seizures can cause neuronal damage which can cause changes in memory and cognitive status (Laureate Education, Inc., 2012). Huether and McCance (2017) state that epilepsy results from the interaction of many different genetic mutations with environmental effects that cause an imbalance in the brain’s neurotransmitters, abnormalities in synaptic transmission, or the development of abnormal nerve connections because of injury. Since seizures often appear within a cluster of other signs and symptoms, it is difficult to classify epileptic seizures by seizure type. Therefore, providers so should look for precipitating factors, severity, age of onset, anatomic location of the seizure focus, circadian cycling, and physical manifestations to assist them in determining the patient’s prognosis as well as the treatment. More than 90 percent of people with seizure disorders lead normal lives with appropriate diagnosis and treatment (Arcangelo, et al., 2017; Laureate Education Inc., 2012).
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- Summer '15
- Seizure, Seizure Disorders