Psychology guided reading- section two.docx - Unit 7...

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Life-Span Human Development
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Chapter 7 / Exercise 2
Life-Span Human Development
Rider/Sigelman
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Unit 7: Cognition Section 2: Solving Problems and Making Decisions Define the following key terms and GIVE AN EXAMOLE OF EACH!!! 1. Algorithms- a methodical logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a problem (example: math equations) 1. Heuristics- a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently (more error-prone than algorithms) (example: trial and error problems) 2. Confirmation Bias- a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore distort contradictory evidence (example: Peter Watson three number sequence) 3. Fixation- the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set (example: matchstick problem) 4. Mental Set- a tendency to approach a problem one way, often a way that has been successful in the past (example: O-T-T-F-?-?-? Set) 5. Functional Fixedness- the tendency to think or things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving (example: match box functions) 6. Intuition- a person's capacity to have direct knowledge/immediate insight without observation or reason (example: a “gut feeling”) 7. Representativeness- judging the likelihood in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information (example: snap judgements) 8. Availability Heuristic- estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory, if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events as common (example: pop into mind) 9.
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Life-Span Human Development
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Chapter 7 / Exercise 2
Life-Span Human Development
Rider/Sigelman
Expert Verified

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