Ancient Mesopotamia.docx - Mesopotamia From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia For other uses see Mesopotamia(disambiguation Map showing the extent of

Ancient Mesopotamia.docx - Mesopotamia From Wikipedia the...

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Mesopotamia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other uses, see Mesopotamia (disambiguation) . Map showing the extent of Mesopotamia This article is part of a series on the History of Iraq Ancient Iraq Sumer Akkadian Empire Babylonia Assyria Neo-Assyrian Empire Neo-Babylonian Empire
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Classical Iraq Achaemenid Assyria Seleucid Babylonia Parthian Babylonia Sassanid Asuristan Medieval Iraq Abbasid Caliphate Ottoman Iraq Mamluk Iraq Modern Iraq British Mandate Kingdom of Iraq Republic of Iraq ( 1958-1968 ) ( 1968-2003 ) ( 2003-2011 ) Iraq portal V T E Mesopotamia (from the Ancient Greek : Μεσοποταμία: "[land] between rivers"; Arabic : د لب نيدفارلا ( bilād al-rāfidayn ); Syriac : ܬܝܒ ܢܝܪܗܢ ( beth nahrain ): "land of rivers") is a toponym for the area of the Tigris– Euphrates river system , corresponding to modern-day Iraq and to a lesser extent northeastern Syria , southeastern Turkey and smaller parts of southwestern Iran .
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Widely considered to be the cradle of civilization in the West, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the Akkadian , Babylonian and Assyrian empires, all native to the territory of modern- day Iraq . In the Iron Age , it was controlled by the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian empires . The indigenous Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire . It fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC and, after his death, it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire . Around 150 BC, Mesopotamia was under the control of the Parthians . Mesopotamia became a battleground between the Romans and Parthians, with parts of Mesopotamia coming under ephemeral Roman control. In AD 226, it fell to the Sassanid Persians, and remained under Persian rule until the 7th century Arab Islamic conquest of the Sassanid Empire . A number of primarily neo Assyrian and Christian native Mesopotamian states existed between the 1st century BC and 3rd century AD, including Adiabene , Osroene and Hatra . Contents [ hide ] 1 Etymology 2 Geography 3 History o 3.1 Periodiza tion 4 Language and writing o 4.1 Literatur e 5 Science and technology o 5.1 Mathema tics o 5.2 Astrono my
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o 5.3 Medicine o 5.4 Technolo gy 6 Religion and philosophy o 6.1 Philosop hy 7 Culture o 7.1 Festivals o 7.2 Music o 7.3 Games o 7.4 Family life o 7.5 Burials 8 Economy and agriculture 9 Government o 9.1 Kings o 9.2 Power o 9.3 Warfare o 9.4 Laws 10 Art 11 Architecture
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12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links Etymology map showing the Tigris–Euphrates river system , which defines Mesopotamia The regional toponym Mesopotamia comes from the ancient Greek root words μέσος ( meso ) "middle" and ποταμός ( potamia ) "river" and literally means "(Land) between rivers". The oldest known occurrence of the name Mesopotamia comes from the Anabasis Alexandri , which was written in the late second century AD but specifically refers to sources from the time of Alexander the Great . In the Anabasis , Mesopotamia was
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