MesopotamiaFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFor other uses, see Mesopotamia (disambiguation).Map showing the extent of MesopotamiaThis article is part of a serieson theHistory ofIraqAncient IraqSumerAkkadian EmpireBabyloniaAssyriaNeo-Assyrian EmpireNeo-Babylonian Empire
Classical IraqAchaemenid AssyriaSeleucid BabyloniaParthian BabyloniaSassanid AsuristanMedieval IraqAbbasid CaliphateOttoman IraqMamluk IraqModern IraqBritish MandateKingdom of IraqRepublic of Iraq(1958-1968)(1968-2003)(2003-2011)Iraq portalVTEMesopotamia(from the Ancient Greek: Μεσοποταμία: "[land] between rivers"; Arabic: د لبنيدفارلا(bilād al-rāfidayn); Syriac: ܬܝܒܢܝܪܗܢ(beth nahrain): "land of rivers") is a toponym for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraqand to a lesser extent northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkeyand smaller parts of southwestern Iran.
Widely considered to be the cradle of civilizationin the West, Bronze AgeMesopotamia included Sumerand the Akkadian,Babylonianand Assyrianempires, all native to the territory of modern-day Iraq. In the Iron Age, it was controlled by the Neo-Assyrianand Neo-Babylonian empires. The indigenous Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia fromthe beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by theAchaemenid Empire. It fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC and, after his death, it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire.Around 150 BC, Mesopotamia was under the control of the Parthians. Mesopotamia became a battleground between the Romans and Parthians, with parts of Mesopotamia coming under ephemeral Roman control. In AD 226, it fell to the Sassanid Persians, and remained under Persian rule until the 7th century Arab Islamic conquestof the Sassanid Empire. A number of primarily neo Assyrian and Christian native Mesopotamian states existed between the 1st century BC and 3rd century AD, including Adiabene, OsroeneandHatra.Contents[hide] 1Etymology2Geography3Historyo3.1Periodization4Language and writingo4.1Literature5Science and technologyo5.1Mathematicso5.2Astronomy
o5.3Medicineo5.4Technology6Religion and philosophyo6.1Philosophy7Cultureo7.1Festivalso7.2Musico7.3Gameso7.4Family lifeo7.5Burials8Economy and agriculture9Governmento9.1Kingso9.2Powero9.3Warfareo9.4Laws10Art11Architecture
12References13Further reading14External linksEtymologymap showing the Tigris–Euphrates river system, which defines MesopotamiaThe regional toponym Mesopotamia comes from the ancient Greekroot words μέσος (meso) "middle" and ποταμός (potamia) "river" and literally means "(Land) between rivers". The oldest known occurrence of the name Mesopotamia comes from the Anabasis Alexandri, which was written in the late second century AD but specifically refers to sources from the time of Alexander the Great. In the Anabasis, Mesopotamia was