Indus Valley CivilizationFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaExtent of the Indus Valley Civilization imposed over modern bordersBronze AgeThis box: viewtalkedit↑ ChalcolithicNear East(3600-1200 BCE)Caucasus, Anatolia, Levant, Egypt,Mesopotamia, Elam, JiroftBronze Age collapseEurope(3600-600 BCE)Aegean(Minoan)Caucasus(Maykop culture)Basarabi cultureCoțofeni culturePecica cultureOtomani culture
Wietenberg cultureCatacomb cultureSrubna cultureBeaker cultureUnetice cultureTumulus cultureUrnfield cultureHallstatt cultureAtlantic Bronze AgeBronze Age BritainNordic Bronze AgeRomanian Bronze AgeSoutheastern European Bronze AgeItalian Bronze AgeIndian SubcontinentChinaKoreaarsenical bronzewritingsword↓The Indus Valley Civilization(IVC) was a Bronze Agecivilization(3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) located in the western regionofSouth Asia,and spread over what are now Pakistan, northwest and western India, eastern Afghanistan, and southeastern Iran.Flourishing in the Indus Riverbasin, the civilization[n 1]extended east into the Ghaggar-Hakra Rivervalleyand the upper reaches Ganges-Yamuna Doab;it extended west to the Makrancoast of Balochistan, north to northeastern Afghanistan and south to Daimabadin Maharashtra. The civilization was spread over some 1,260,000 km², making it the largest ancient civilization.The Indus Valley is one of the world's earliest urban civilizations, along with its contemporaries, Mesopotamiaand Ancient Egypt. At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of well over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelianproducts, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin). The civilization is noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, and multistoried houses.
The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization, as the first of its cities to be unearthed was located at Harappa, excavated in the 1920s in what was at the time the Punjab provinceof British India(now in Pakistan).Excavation of Harappan sites has been ongoing since 1920, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999.There were earlier and later cultures, often called Early Harappan and Late Harappan, in the same area of the Harappan Civilization. The Harappan civilisation is sometimes called the Mature Harappan cultureto distinguish it from these cultures. Up to 1999, about 1,056 cities and settlements have been found, of which 96 sites have been excavatedmainly in the general region of the Indusriver and its tributaries. Among the settlements were the major urban centres of Harappa, Mohenjo-daro(UNESCO World Heritage Site), Ganweriwala, Dholavira, and Rakhigarhi.The Harappan languageis not directly attested and its affiliation is uncertain since the Indus scriptis still undeciphered. A relationship with the DravidianorElamo-Dravidianlanguage family is favored by most accounts.[pageneeded]Contents[hide] 1