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Psych study guide - Exam#2 Study Guide 1 Perceptual Development a Habituation-a stimulus becomes so familiar or boring that infant stops showing

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Exam #2 Study Guide 1) Perceptual Development a) Habituation- a stimulus becomes so familiar or boring that infant stops showing any response to it Preferential Looking - two objects are presented simultaneously and we record how long infant attends to each one Evoke Potentials - present with a stimulus and record brain waves. Eeg measures electivity in the brain. Spike is related to dis-habituation. Operant Conditioning - infant repeats a response that has a pleasant consequence. Can use this to measure distinction and discrimination when another object is presented -Reveal a good deal about what infants perceive and what they do not b) infants 0-2 mos: can see high contrast/ moderately complex patterns, prefer curvilinear rather than linear patterns infants 2 months and older: can discriminate highly complext patterns similar to adults. 2 months: degrees of brightness 4 months: degrees of color c) Prefer food flavorings to stronger smells, prefer mother’s breast odor, prefer sweet flavors to sour or bitter ones. d) 3-4 months: prelocomotive infants show a decrease in heart rate due to interest not feat (noticed depth but don’t understand it) 6-7 months: infants avoid deep side. Babies can see and understand depth without learning ( experience with self-locomostion is necessary for children to avoid depth) e) children come to control visual search more exhaustively and systematically with age. We learn to control attention by focus and become less distracted by irrelevant details in our environment f) infants prefer the familiar story. Prefer to hear their mother’s voice 3 mos: can recognize same phonemes spoken by different people. Infants can distinguish between sounds of other languages as well as their own. By 1 year this is lost. g) Information processing is less perceptionally dominated as we get older. We rely more on cognition as we age
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2) Cognitive Development a) Adaptation - the process of adjusting to the demands of environment Assimilation -the process by which we interpret new experiences in terms of existing schemes or cognitive structures Accommodation -the process of modifying existing schemes to better fit new experiences Object Permanence -earliest stage, out-of sight, out-of-mind, children will not look for a hidden object or person A-not-B error -search for an object in the place where they last found it(A) rather than its new hiding place(B) Preoperational Stage : Decentration -the ability to focus on two or more dimensions of a problem at once Centration -the tendency to center attention on a single aspect of the problem Static thought- thought that is fixed on end states rather than the changes that transform one state into another Reversibility -the process of mentally undoing or reversing an action Transformational thought-the ability to conceptualize transformations, or processes of change from one state to another Egocentrism - the tendency to view the world solely from one’s own perspective and to
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2008 for the course PSYCH 230 taught by Professor Phillips during the Spring '08 term at Iowa State.

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Psych study guide - Exam#2 Study Guide 1 Perceptual Development a Habituation-a stimulus becomes so familiar or boring that infant stops showing

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