ACOM Exam 1 Review - Chapter 1 Communication is Symbolic-A Symbol is Arbitrary and represents something else-Object-Idea-Person or

ACOM Exam 1 Review - Chapter 1 Communication is...

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Chapter 1 Communication is Symbolic -A Symbol is Arbitrary and represents something else -Object -Idea -Person or Place -Relationship -A symbol can be a word, movement, sound, picture, logo, and more Ex: -Money -Love -Victory -Freedom -Symbols and signs are not the same -Signs are consequences/indicators of something specific -Not able to be changed by human arbitrary action -Symbols have no direct connection to what they represent -Can be different in different cultures ex: symbol of god SYMBOLS ARE ARBITRARY, SIGNS ARE SPECIFIC Verbal Symbols -dog -chien -perro -Symbols must convey meaning -Particular meanings are not tied to a single symbol -Can be conveyed in multiple ways EX: Symbols of Peace Different things (peace sign circle, peace with fingers, dove) all symbols of peace Communication Requires Meaning -Social construction of Meaning -Symbols take on meaning in social context or society as they are used over time -Meanings are recognized by those who have used them over time -Society creates its own meaning to whichever symbol based on that society
Non-Verbal Symbols -Statue of liberty -A countries flag VERBAL AND NON VERBAL SYMBOLS HAVE DENOTATIVE AND CONNOTATIVE MEANINGS - DENOTATIVE MEANING is the commonly understood, widely accepted PRIMARY MEANING of a verbal or non verbal symbol - CONNOTATIVE MEANING is provided by the SECONDARY ASSOCIATIONS of verbal or non verbal symbol Communication Involves Frames -Frames are basic forms of knowledge that provide definition to a scenario -Both people agree, or -Cultural assumptions are built in -Communication frames draw boundaries around conversations and pull attention to and away from certain things -Coordinating Interactions -Frames help people understand their role in the conversation as well as what is expected of them -Shared understanding of these frames enable people to make sense of what is occurring so they can coordinate their symbolic activities -Perspectives -Frames are partly bases on a person’s perspectives of situations and relationships -Influence the coordinating of interactions and assigning meaning -Frames also explain why people do not always agree on what is occurring -Assigning Meaning -People use frames to make decisions about what symbols to use and how the symbols should be interpreted -Symbols need a background of knowledge build into the interpretation of the words and/or images themselves -Shared Knowledge of background reduces need for explanation of terms Communication and Meaning Are Relational -Communication and relationships are intertwined -Relationships are assumed any time we communicate with someone -Communication contains content (message) and relational levels -Relationships are not always obvious
EXAMPLE OF 2 DIFFERENT RELATIONSHIPS A: I have a bad cold, I haven’t slept, and I’m afraid I’m going to flunk our test tomorrow because I’m not well enough to study.

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