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Chapter 1 – The Sociological Perspective and Research - Study guide These come from the PowerPoints and the E-text You should be familiar with the following terms and concepts, and be able to apply them to examples: - The difference between Psychology and Sociology Psychology looks at individuals sometimes looking at how society affects these individuals, Psychology does lab conditions isolating for one variable; sociology studies group dynamics Doesn’t discount individual but looks at more factors, sociology can’t do closed lab environments because we don’t live in a lab environment. - Why Study Sociology? Helps us assess the “truth” behind common sense assumptions, common sense isn’t common, assesses both the opportunities and limitations of our lives; empowers us to actively participate in the social world around us; allows us to notice diversity in America; sociology draws attention to social crisis - Early Thinkers: A Concern with Social Order and Stability Auguste Comte (suggested positivism) credited as the founder of sociology, he began to analyze the biases of the social order, didn’t actually use scientific method, lived during the French revolution, believed sociology would improve society; Positivism (the application of the scientific approach to the social world) Herbert Spencer and Social Darwinism: second founder of society, disagreed and said sociology shouldn’t guide social reform and it would interfere with the natural process which improves society; coined the phrase survival of the fittest; didn’t conduct actual scientific research, his idea is called social Darwinism Karl Marx and class conflict: believed that the roots of human misery lay in class conflict, the exploitation of workers by those who own the means of production, see