week 4 advanced pharmacology discussion.docx - Pneumonia Community-acquired pneumonia(CAP is the infectious disease with the highest number of deaths

week 4 advanced pharmacology discussion.docx - Pneumonia...

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Pneumonia Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the infectious disease with the highest number of deaths worldwide (Pletz et. al., 2016). Pneumonia is an infection and inflammation in the terminal airways and alveoli (Huether & McCance, 2017). The symptoms of pneumonia include cough, chills, shortness of breath, sputum production, and chest pain (Arcangelo et. al., 2017). Diagnosis and management of pneumonia require knowledge of host risk factors, potential infectious agents, and environmental exposures (Hammer & McPhee, 2014). Pneumonia can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. The causative agent is only identified in about 50% of cases and usually after a delay of several days. Because symptoms are usually nonspecific of the various causative agents, it is imperative to have knowledge of the most common etiologic organisms to determine appropriate antibiotic regimens. Treatment The goals of pharmacotherapy for pneumonia include eradicating the offending microorganism through the selection of appropriate antibiotic therapy, complete clinical cure, preventing complications from pneumonia (e.g., respiratory failure, sepsis, empyema) and minimizing adverse effects of medications (Arcangelo et. al., 2017). Empiric antibiotic treatment should be initiated for community acquired pneumonia (CAP), unless diagnostic tests reveal a specific etiology, which is uncommon. S. pneumoniae is the most common causative agent, therefore, empiric antibiotic treatment should be active against it. Outpatient treatment for adult patients without recent antibiotic treatment or coexisting conditions should consist of a macrolide, like clarithromycin or azithromycin, or doxycycline.
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