Differentiating the Levels of Schizophrenia Differentiating the Levels of Schizophrenia Between Old and New Danielle Varricchio Professor Platt Psychology Research Paper 6 December 2016
Differentiating the Levels of Schizophrenia Introduction Schizophrenia is the neurological disorder that consists of the breakdown in the relationships shared among an individual’s cognitive functions, such as thought, emotion, and behavior. Such chemical imbalances most commonly lead individuals to attain a faulty perception of the world, withdrawing from reality and indulging into fantasies and delusions that they may consider to be reality. Through years of observations and research, psychiatrists have concluded that schizophrenia is the prime result of complications within the communication system of the brain, where the neurotransmitters are unable to transfer information properly from one branch cell to the next (Northoff & Duncan 2016). There is no known single cause for schizophrenia to occur in an individual, but all tools of modern biomedical research are being used to search for an answer. It has been hypothesized that schizophrenia can occur in an individual that had been exposed to viruses or malnutrition before birth, problems during birth, or have family members that have been diagnosed with this disorder and inherited it through genetics. This disorder is a result of interplay between predisposition and the environment that one is exposed to. Such disruptions in one’s brain development is known to either damage the brain even further and increase the risk of schizophrenia or minimize the genetic factor and decrease the risk of schizophrenia (Smith 2016). Abstract This paper explores and highlights the changes seen from DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revision) to
Differentiating the Levels of Schizophrenia DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition). Previous analyses have suggested that personal experiences of schizophrenia depicted in DSM-5 are far from what they were once depicted as in DSM-IV-TR, allowing descriptive phenomenological analysis to be first introduced. This form of analyzing encouraged researchers to bracket their personal assumptions, pertaining to a specific situation, by refraining to pose a sense of reality for oneself or the participants who were being studied (Giorgi, 1986). During this process, however, theoretical or speculative interpretation should be avoided so as to flesh out the full lived meaning inherent to the descriptions themselves (Giorgi, 2009, p. 127). Other recent analyses have determined further changes made in DSM-5, specifically in Criterion A, that directly relate to schizophrenia. Going further in depth about the changes made in DSM-5, the research question surfaces in that it recalls the 4 main types of schizophrenia that were once used in DSM-IV-TR and why they were recently abandoned when DSM-5 was published.
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