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Running head: ARTICLE REVIEW: CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE Article Review: Deborah Papin Grand Canyon University: PSY-402 December 30, 2018 Professor: Kristi Husk 1
CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE Crystallized intelligence references the knowledge of subjects such as vocabulary and our experiences. On the flipside of this is fluid intelligence which is more closely connected to working memory (Gazzaniga, Ivry & Mangun, 2014). This article discusses the relationship that exists between crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence and how they each relate to working memory. The study has revealed three distinct factors that were determined to be crystallized intelligence, fluid intelligence and working memory (Darolia, & Varshney, 2015). This article discusses how closely these three factors relate to each other and the functions of memory and the brain. Method This study was done using two hundred and fifty participants in grades eleven and twelve. Their ages ranged from fifteen to eighteen and they each came from different socioeconomic backgrounds and consisted of one hundred and fifteen females and one hundred and thirty-five male participants (Darolia & Varshney, 2015). The participants were given numerous working memory tests made up of Operation Span Test and Reading Span Tests. The operation span test created by Turner and Engle in nineteen eighty-nine and consists of a set of simple math problems which is followed by a lowercase word. The participants read the problem out loud and solve it then read the word after each math problem (Darolia &Varshney, 2015). When they were done they were signaled to recall several strings in the correct order, the string size that is recalled correctly with a minimum criterion of two correct recalls is the operation span score (Darolia & Varsheny, 2015). Next the reading span test which was created by Daneman and Carpenter in nineteen eighty will display different sized strings of sentence words.

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