Unformatted text preview: Lecture 8 – The Road to Revolution The road to the American Revolution was inevitable from the moment the first colonists set foot in North America.
An unconscious independence was established early, as London was over 3,000 miles away.
It took 6 to 8 weeks to sail across Atlantic Ocean and colonists felt physically, emotionally and spiritually separated.
They felt fundamentally different and more independent from England.
Most colonists began to think of themselves as Americans and not really British Mercantilism Britain 13 Colonies Mercantilism was the reason behind British control of colonies.
Definition of Mercantilism is when a mother country is supplied with raw materials from their colonies.
In return, the mother country exports finished/manufactured goods to the colonies.
American colonies wanted to trade with all nations Mercantilism Navigation Law of 1650 (similar to Molasses Act of May, 1733) mandated Colonial trade only with Britain.
American traders ignored by smuggling and British officials did not enforce law Paying British Debt British Parliament had a huge debt after the French and Indian War.
They logically concluded that the American Colonies should help, reasoning they helped protect America.
They decided on a course of various taxes and acts, but they misjudged the Colonial response Paying British Debt
British Prime Minister
George Grenville British Prime Minister George Grenville led the way with 1763 Enforcement of Navigation and Molasses Acts.
Juries were suspended in hopes to end smuggling Paying British Debt
Sugar Act (Revenue Act) Quartering Act
Amendment in Bill of Rights Stamp Act 1764 (April 5th) Sugar Act (Revenue Act), decreased taxes on Molasses and increased taxes on imports: wine, coffee,
indigo, textiles and sugar.
1765 (February 13th) Stamp Act, taxed various documents: newspapers, pamphlets, almanacs, bonds, leases, deeds,
licenses, diplomas, playing cards and affected all colonial professions: merchants, planters, lawyers, printer-editors, etc
1765 (March 24th) Quartering Act, which made Colonies provided food and housing for British troops and this applied to all
colonies but effected mostly New York, as it was headquarters for British military in America Real Whigs American colonists were outraged and referred to themselves as ‘Real Whigs’ (Later named for Whig party-1833).
Historical Roots: Englishman who struggled with royal tyranny
American (Englishman) concerns: British standing army in colonies, with no French, no need for protection.
Perhaps trying to subdue Americans
Colonial trial by juries were suspended, instead by judge in Halifax (Canada) and defendants had to prove innocent.
Right to be taxed only by elected representatives, but Parliament was bypassing colonial self-government.
This led to cry of “No taxation without representation”
British Prime Minister
George Grenville Americans wanted representation in Parliament, but George Grenville replied that this was absurd.
He claimed “virtual representation”, with Parliament representing all British subjects, but Americans rejected this Fallout from the Stamp Act From October 7th to 25th, 1765, colonial representatives met in New York.
Of the 13 colonies, 9 sent delegates to discuss the Stamp Act and they decided on a course of boycotting British goods.
This hurt British businesses in London, who petitioned to Parliament to repeal Stamp Act The Sons of Liberty Sons of Liberty Samuel Adams The Sons of Liberty were founded in Boston, in August, 1765 and were initially led by Samuel Adams The Sons of Liberty
Other notable Sons of Liberty members: John Hancock Patrick Henry Paul Revere The Sons of Liberty
They took the law into their own hands, using tarring and feathering.
They terrorized Royal officials, such as tax collectors and Americans who did not boycott British goods British merchants faced economic ruin and on February 21st, 1766, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act Declaratory Act March 18th, 1766, Parliament passed the Declaratory Act.
It warned that they had the right “to bind” the colonies “in all cases whatsoever”.
It was more of a “face-saving gesture” Townsend Acts
New Prime Minister
Charles Townshend New Prime Minister Charles Townshend led the June 29th, 1767, Townshend Acts, sometimes called Revenue Acts.
Basically a series of new taxes on the Colonies: glass, lead, paper, paint and tea and Americans were outraged American Reaction In New York, Colonists refused to comply with Quartering Act and Parliament suspended the New York legislature.
Sons of Liberty renewed terror and Americans began smuggling more John Dickinson “Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer” John Dickinson In 1767 and 1768, John Dickinson (1732-1808) wrote “Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania”.
Twelve total letters criticizing the Townshend Acts, were published and impacted American thoughts.
He claimed taxes were “unconstitutional”, but he called for restraint from violence King George III Lord North
Frederick Lord North On January 29th, 1770, King George III chose another new Prime Minister, Frederick Lord North.
North sent British soldiers to Boston with tensions mounting, he thought this would help.
Instead, their presence caused the Boston Massacre Boston Massacre
On March 5th, 1770, a crowd of 60 to 70 persons surrounded 10 British soldiers.
Led by Crispus Attucks (1723-1770), who was a former slave
Crispus Attucks They taunted, yelled insults, threw bottles, rocks, icicles and threatened with clubs.
Clubs were used for beating out ropes for ship industry in Boston.
One of soldiers fired into crowd, other shots followed.
5 people were killed (included Crispus Attucks) and 8 wounded Boston Massacre
Paul Revere March 5th, 1770 - Boston Massacre This became known as Boston Massacre, propaganda used by Sons of Liberty and Paul Revere painted massacre.
Americans throughout colonies were furious, even though, it was not really a massacre John Adams John Adams was a lawyer from Braintree, MA who reluctantly agreed to defend 10 British soldiers.
Heavily criticized, Adams believed all deserved a fair trial John Adams From HBO miniseries “John Adams” John Adams interviews and research was revealing, as he realized they acted in self-defense and were frightened.
Adams gave a great defense for the soldiers in the trial that took place from November 27th to December 13th, 1770.
8 of accused were acquitted, 2 soldiers were convicted of manslaughter and they were branded on their thumbs John Adams
Townsend Acts American Anger John Adams Consequences of Boston Massacre were as follows:
John Adams won respect from people of Massachusetts and would soon be chosen to represent them.
In April, 1770, Parliament repealed Townsend Acts on everything, except tea.
British soldiers were removed from Boston and relocated to NY, as it was believed their presence caused the massacre.
Americans were still angry over massacre and cries of “No taxation without representation” continued English East India Company Only 2 of original 342
chests that exists today Lord North In 1773, the English East India Company faced bankruptcy, with 17 million pounds of unsold tea (value, not weight).
Tea Act of 1773 (May 10th) allowed Lord North to dismiss duties (taxes) and plan to sell tea to colonies.
Undercut American tea merchants (smugglers), cheap tea negatively affected New Englanders, making Americans angry Boston Tea Party
Samuel Adams Paul Revere On December 16th, 1773, the Sons of Liberty acted and was believed to have been led by Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
They were poorly disguised as Mohawk Indians, as 16 men boarded three English East India Company ships.
They dumped 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor and this was known as the Boston Tea Party British Anger
King George III Prime Minister Lord North King George III, Lord North and Parliament were very angry and they believed a firm response was necessary British Anger
From April to May, 1774, Parliament passed a series of “Coercive Acts” intended to punish the Massachusetts Colony.
In America, these were known as the “Intolerable Acts” and the Coercive Acts included: Boston Port Act, which closed Boston Harbor until city paid for the lost tea.
New Quartering Act for Boston, including private homes.
Massachusetts Government Act, which revoked Massachusetts Colonial charter.
Town Hall Meetings were suspended British Anger Thomas
Thomas Gage Royal Governor, Thomas Hutchinson (1711-1780) was replaced by General Thomas Gage and 4,000 British soldiers.
Essentially, martial law was declared and this British Rule was called “despotism”.
Definition: Absolute rule by single entity, such as King or tyrant, loosely used at this time regarding British Military.
Despotism gives the military absolute authority over civilian rule The First Continental Congress The First Continental Congress included 56 representatives from 12 of 13 Colonies met in Philadelphia.
Georgia did not send a rep, hoping for British help due to conflicts with Native Americans.
They met from September 5th to October 26th, 1774 The First Continental Congress Samuel Adams John Adams George Washington Patrick Henry Notable attendees at First Continental Congress, which met from Sept. 5th, 1774 to Oct. 26th, 1774 The First Continental Congress
Actions of First Continental Congress:
First, they announced unequivocal support for Massachusetts in response to Coercive (Intolerable) Acts.
Second, they drafted a list of rights and grievances, petitioned the King George III to consider (he refused)
George III Third, they decided to boycott all British trade, refused buying British goods and refused to send Britain raw materials.
Fourth and finally, they urged each colony to prepare militarily, encouraged to recruit and train local militia for self defense.
Thousands in New England joined and trained in Militia and as Minutemen.
Members agreed to meet again in 1775, if situation were to change Patrick Henry Patrick Henry was a politician from Virginia who gave a famous speech on March 23rd, 1775.
In response to British violations of liberty, while in Virginia, Patrick Henry said “Give me liberty or give me death”.
He would inspire Virginians to prepare for war Dont Tread On Me
Christopher Gadsden (1724-1805) was a representative from South Carolina during Continental Congress.
A close friend of Samuel Adams, he became known as “the Sam Adams of the South”.
He led sons of liberty chapter in Charleston, South Carolina Christopher Gadsden James Gadsden After the First Continental Congress met, he designed a flag, symbolic to building revolution.
It would not be flown on ships or in Charleston, SC until late fall, 1775, it was known as the “Dont Tread On Me” Flag.
Note: Christopher is the grandfather of James Gadsden (1788-1858), who negotiated 1853 Gadsden Purchas from Mexico Thomas Gage
Thomas Gage Samuel Adams John Hancock On April 14th, 1775, General Thomas Gage was given orders to stop the rebellion in Massachusetts.
Political discourse is rarely solved with military action, he was reluctant, but followed orders.
On April 18th, before midnight, he ordered 800 British soldiers to Concord, MA (17 mile march) with two objects:
First, they were to arrest rebel leaders: Sam Adams and John Hancock.
Second, they were to capture war materials and supplies Old North Church Paul Revere 800 BRITISH 4,000 BRITISH April 18th - 19th, 1775 – 800 British soldiers advance toward Concord, Massachusetts (17 miles) Old North Church
Sketch of Old North Church, from 1807
but steeple was destroyed by fire in 1954 Paul Revere Paul Revere set up a warning system of “One if by land, two if by sea”.
Lanterns would be posted on the Old North Church steeple.
One lantern hung if British attacked by land and two lanterns hung if they attacked by sea.
The British came by boat (sea) and two lanterns were posted, with Paul Revere warning Sons of Liberty Paul Revere’s Ride
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow A poem written in 1860 by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882) glorified Paul Reveres “Midnight Ride”.
“The British are coming!” – Midnight of April 18th and morning of 19th.
Paul Revere was not the only one spreading the alarm Paul Revere’s Ride
William Dawes Samuel Prescott American Militia or the “Minutemen” were awakened Lexington British Major
John Pitcairn Captain
John Parker 800 BRITISH 4,000
BRITISH On April 19th, 1775, the first British arrived at Lexington, with Major John Pitcairn leading advance guard of 238 soldiers.
Around 70 American Militia/Minutemen were waiting and were commanded by Captain John Parker.
Pitcairn yelled “Disperse, you damned rebels! You dogs, run!” Lexington April 19th, 1775, at 4:30am, on the Lexington green, someone fired the “Shot Heard ‘Round the World”.
Other British soldiers fired and 8 Americans were killed, 10 wounded.
The Battle of Lexington was beginning of Revolutionary War Concord 800 BRITISH 4,000
BRITISH April 19th, 1775, after Battle of Lexington, American Militia retreated, as British pressed on to Concord, arriving around 7am.
There, at Old North Bridge, they encountered more American militia and the Battle of Concord was fought.
400 American Militia met about 100 British, defeating them and forcing British to retreat Concord April 19th, 1775, after Battle of Lexington, American Militia retreated, as British pressed on to Concord, arriving around 7am.
There, at Old North Bridge, they encountered more American militia and the Battle of Concord was fought.
400 American Militia met about 100 British, defeating them and forcing British to retreat Concord After Battles of Lexington and Concord, the British had long retreat back to Boston Harbor.
Americans hid behind trees, stone walls, barns and houses, firing at retreating British, all 17 miles, as Militia grew to 3,800.
Total Lexington/Concord casualties: 43 Americans and 73 British killed.
British suffered 174 wounded, mostly during retreat British/American Disadvantages/Advantages British Revolutionary War Advantages
7.5 million population compared with America’s 2.5 million. British Naval power, Britain was economically established and
wealthy, Professional Army of at least 50,000 soldiers, British had 30,000 Hessians/German mercenaries, They had
approximately 50,000 American loyalists, numerous Indian Allies (including some of Iroquois Nation tribes)
British Revolutionary War Disadvantages
France was waiting to hurt Britain, Britain had poor leadership: Officers and Politicians, British citizens did not see
Americans as enemies, Logistics, as America was 3,000 miles away, America was expansive: No capital like Paris, France
American Revolutionary War Advantages
Americans had great leaders: George Washington and Ben Franklin, French aid, indirect and secretly at first, such as guns
and supplies, American knowledge of land and geography (home-field advantage), Americans were fighting a defensive war
and were self-sustaining, Americans were better marksmen and could hit a man’s head at 200 yards
American Revolutionary War Disadvantages
Americans lacked unity and cohesiveness, The powers of the Continental Congress were weak, Americans had little money
or international credit, America had virtually nothing of a navy Lecture 9 – America Leaves British Empire
The Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia on May 10th, 1775, but were still not looking for independence.
They sent another list of grievances to Parliament and adopted measures to raise money for an Army
George Washington On June 15th, 1775, George Washington became General and Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army.
This was the most important decision that they made, as Washington was a great leader.
He radiated patience, courage and self-discipline and insisted on working without pay The Battle of Bunker Hill American General
Joseph Warren After retreating to Boston, about 4,000 British were trapped by about 18,000 Militia/Minutemen.
On night of June 16th, 1775, Americans seized Breed’s Hill, led by General Joseph Warren.
This hill would later be renamed Bunker Hill, for which the battle took place The Battle of Bunker Hill
William Prescott On June 17th, 1775, the General Thomas Gage ordered three frontal attacks.
It’s believed Colonel William Prescott (1726-1795) said famous line:
“Don’t shoot until you see the whites of their eyes” British General
Thomas Gage General Warren The entrenched Americans repelled two assaults.
The line broke on third and final frontal assault.
Americans ran out of gunpowder and retreated.
British had more than 1,054 casualties.
Americans had about 400 casualties and General Warren was killed The Battle of Bunker Hill
Thomas Gage British General
Thomas Gage King George III After Battle of Bunker Hill, Thomas Gage was recalled to Britain and left on Sept. 26th, 1775.
On October 11th, 1775, Gage was replaced by General William Howe, who became in charge of British soldiers in Boston.
King George III declared colonies to be in open rebellion: An act of treason Green Mountain Boys Ethan Allen Since 1760’s, private militia controlled lands between colonies of New York and New Hampshire.
This was an area known as “New Hampshire Grants” and future state of Vermont.
In 1775, this area had about 80 Green Mountain Boys, led by Ethan Allen Fort Ticonderoga Ethan Allen Benedict Arnold Ethan Allen led about 80 Green Mountain Boys into Northern New York.
His objective was to capture Fort Ticonderoga, which was “Gibraltar of North America” or key fort in Hudson Valley.
Along the way, he met Benedict Arnold, from Connecticut and they argued until they agreed to a joint command Fort Ticonderoga On May 10th, 1775, they captured Fort Ticonderoga in middle of night, surprising 48 sleeping British.
The fort brought much needed supplies, like gunpowder and cannon.
After capturing the fort, Allen took credit and did not mention Arnold’s role.
For several days, Allen and his men went on a drinking binge The Failed Conquest of Canada Some American entrepreneur/militarists thought Canada could be captured from British.
Canadians were content with freedoms and protection with the British.
They were of French dissent and mostly Catholic, with 13 Colonies mostly Protestant Some American entrepreneur/militarists thought Canada could be captured from British.
Canadians were content with freedoms and protection with the British.
They were of French dissent and mostly Catholic, with 13 Colonies mostly Protestant The Failed Conquest of Canada In July, 1775, a conquest for Quebec was authorized by Second Continental Congress.
They chose General Richard Montgomery, who led 1,200 militia from Fort Ticonderoga to Montreal, Canada.
Ethan Allen/Green Mountain Boys helped capture Crown Point and Fort George, but were captured on Sept. 25th, 1775.
Ethan Allen was held prison for rest of war General
Montgomery George Washington
Ethan Allen In November, 1775, General Montgomery captured Montreal and by December 3rd, 1775, he was in Quebec, Canada.
In September, Benedict Arnold met with George Washington in Boston, who let him join Montgomery in Canada.
From Boston through Maine, Arnold led 1,100 militia to Quebec, Arnold arrived before Montgomery on Nov. 3rd, 1775.
On December 3rd, 1775, Arnold and Montgomery combined forces Battle of Quebec In late November and all of December, 1775, smallpox ravaged American militia in Quebec.
Of the 2,300 militia in Quebec, only 900 were fit to fight on New Year’s Eve.
On December 31st, 1775, the Battle of Quebec took place, as 900 Americans attacked It was a disastrous American defeat, with 100 killed and 400 captured.
1,800 British/Canadians easily repelled attack and killing Gen. Montgomery.
Arnold was wounded and retreated back to America British Leave Boston In late 1775 and early 1776, the British Navy attacked and burned a number of American
coastal towns, namely Falmouth (Portland), Maine Territory and Norf...
View Full Document