Lecture 14: The New Imperialism 1. The Heart of Darkness - Roger Casement; Leopold II of the Belgians’ atrocities in the Congo Free State - Became an Irish revolutionary, arrested by Brits and tried for high treason, was executed - Fascinating for historians about sexuality, keeping a “gay sex diary” (very graphic) - 1892 moved into the british colonial administration in S.A - Started work at a member of the office staff for a liverpool shippng company, let him 1st travel in a company ship to W Africa - 1900 given task to set up new Brit consulate in Congo Free State - Brutality of Leopold’s regime in the Congo had already brought a lot of protest - Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness (1898) - About the Congo, exploitation of African labourers, in Leopold’s attempt to get as much ivory as possible - Switched from ivory to rubber later on as it was needed for automobiles - Reports of women, kids, elders, chiefs to force males to supply their quotas of rubber, those that didn’t supply were tortured/shot - The campaign against Leapold (king) forced him to close down this Congo operation - Edmund Dene Morel and the Congo Reform Association; maybe 10M (50% of the entire pop) Congolese died in this “civilizing mission”. - In Belgium, his name was upheld, not seen as one of the worst mass murderers 2. Formal & Informal Empires --GB example: formal empire in 1815: Caribbean sugar islands, British N. America, parts of Canada, parts of India, Cape Colony (S.A), parts of Australia, plus trading stations. - 1815 (end of Napoleonic wars) - All areas under Brit territorial control, there was some more expansion later on but.. --there was Preference for informal empire based on naval power and trade: e.gs of Latin America (signed comertial treaties with these republics) (since their gov. Adapted to being part of GB. naval group so britain had informal power) gunboat diplomacy in 1 st Opium War, 1839-42 - chinese gov tried to stop GB from bringing in opium from India
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