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Indus Valley Civilization Sir John Marshall, the Director General of Archaeology, declared that a new civilization has beendiscovered in the Indus valley. He wrote 3 stout volumes about that civilization. Excavation workwas done at Mohenjo-Daro by him and his colleagues (1921-1927). It was later continued by J. H.Mackay (1727-1731), G. F. Dales(1963). Almost at the same time similar work was being done at Harappa which is situated on the banks ofRiver Ravi in west Punjab which is at a distance of 100 miles from Lahore. These and otherexcavation at Rupar in the Ambala district, Rangpur and Lothal in Sourashtra and with thesearchaeological discoveries India can now claim to the honour of being pioneer among the civilizednations like Sumer, Akhad, Babylon, Egypt and Assyria. The discovery of various similar articles inEgypt and Mesopotomia reveals that there existed a close relationship among these contemporary.Historians regard Indus valley too as the centre of ancient civilization like Egypt and Babylonia. Important Cities and Sites: Harappa (West Punjab), Mohenjadaro (Modern Pakistan), Rupar(Punjab), Rangpur and Lothal in Saurashtra (Gujarat), Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Babur Kot (Gujarat),Larkhana in Sindh(Pakistan), Manda (Jammu and Kashmir), and Alamgirpur (U.P) Different Names: Some said it was the Bronze Age Civilization (3300-1300BCE). Some called it the Chalcolithic Ageas copper was the main metal used in those days. Some called it the Sumerian civilisation as they hadtrade relations with them. But no other link was seen among them. When objects similar to thosefound at Harappa were found at Rupar, Rangpur, Lothal and Kalibangan, it was desired to name itHarappa culture. However finally, John Marshall’s view was accepted as he only discovered theIndus civilization. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro: These two cities were extremely beautiful and flourishing. Harappa was a bigger city in comparisonto Mohenjo-Daro but the houses of Harappa were smaller in size than those at Mohenjo-Daro. Citywas ravaged by the river Indus and natural calamities from time to time, every time it has to berebuilt. As the level of the earth rose from periodic flooding, new houses were built almost exactly onthe sites of the old with minor variations in the ground plan. Political: Due to the paucity of written material we do not know much about the political life of the people. Wedon’t have any idea whether city was surrounded by walls or not. But recent excavation by Wheelerproved that Harappa had a rampart (protective barrier) as well. Discovery of some buildings with big
walls show that they were not used for domestic purposes but might have been used as governmentoffices. Planned streets and drainage made it clear that there was certain municipal organisation forlooking after the city. The discovery of lamp post and guard house show that arrangements werethere to look after the city at night.