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Biological Psychology
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Chapter 7 / Exercise 4
Biological Psychology
Kalat
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1.What is lateral inhibition?2.What is the role of the horizontal neurons in lateral inhibition?3.What would happen to the perceived stimulus if the horizontal neurons were excitatory?4.What are two ways you could switch the system so that it was excitatory?Lateral inhibition increases contrast between signals from neurons at the center of the stimulus and neurons on the edge, allowing further discrimination.The synopsis of lateral inhibition:Lateral inhibition increases contrast between signals from neurons that are side by side. You got three neurons side by side, there is strong stimulus in the middle and week stimulus in either side. If we think about this, just the top layer, the skin is at the top and you are getting deeper and deeper into the skin and down towards the bottom, if you think about what’s happening at the skin this is what you see. You got a strong stimulus in the middle, week stimulus in the sides. So, you end up with that bar graph in the side. The middle neuron is going to be giving lots of neurotransmitters and if there are no horizontal cellsthe side guys are going to be giving a little bit of neurotransmitters which is based on how much stimulusyou are receiving. If you look at the bottom here, you end up with is each of the cells getting a message. This in the context that there is no horizontal cells and you are just looking at nerves talking to nerves you end up with side guys releasing a little bit of neurotransmitters and it would look the same on the bottom row of neurons with top. So, if you put the horizontal cells back in, these horizontal cells inhibit the neurons on either side of the guy releasing most neurotransmitter. And so, what happens is that those guys stop releasing the neurotransmitter on the outside because they are being inhibited. And thatmeans the guys at the side of the bottom don’t release any neurotransmitter. And that’s is how you get to that the message getting to the inflated center because lateral inhibition has shut off those side neurons. Lateral inhibition is important because it makes photoreceptors and our visions good and it all has to do with how the photoreceptors are organized in the retina. On-center or off-centre cells = Some bipolar cells are excited by glutamate and some are inhibited by
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Biological Psychology
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Chapter 7 / Exercise 4
Biological Psychology
Kalat
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