final study guide - Ch 1 Introduction Origins of dress earliest depictions found in prehistoric cave paintings that show little detail from early

final study guide - Ch 1 Introduction Origins of dress...

This preview shows page 1 out of 34 pages.

Unformatted text preview: Ch. 1 Introduction Origins of dress - earliest depictions found in prehistoric cave paintings, that show little detail, from early paleolithic period ~ 30,000 yrs ago Reasons 1. 2. 3. 4. people wore clothes Protection (including from supernatural bullshit) Decoration Modesty Status A limitation to fashion - geography Ex. N Europe couldn't have cotton for a while because it was too cold. Silk couldn't be worn by Europeans until Marco Polo traveled to Asia Costume: tends to be used in museums and by historians who study what people wear. Dress: anything that individuals do to modify the body, anything they attach to the body, and anything they place around the body. Draped Dress: arrangement around the body of piece of fabric that are folded, pleated, pinned, or belted in different ways. Tailored Dress: pieces are cut and sewn together. Cultural Authentication: whereby elements of dress of one culture are incorporated into the dress of another Zeitgeist: aka spirit of the times, the specifics of an era is determined by a complex mixture of social, physiological, and aesthetic factors. Venus of Willendorf (25,000 BCE) birth of style questions her head (is it status, decoration, modesty, protection, sexuality??) Functions of dress in a social context 1. Designation of gender 2. Designation of age Ex. Breeching: In England during renaissance, 5-year-old boys receive first pair of “breeches” of pants 3. Designation of status Ex. Sumptuary laws: restricted use of luxurious good to people of a particular rank and status 4. 4. Identification of group membership 5. Ceremonial use of clothing 6. As a mean of social communication Paleolithic Era 2.5 to 2 million years ago - 10,000 years ago indirect evidence only - not having tangible evidence, drawing on general knowledge and is how we know about prehistoric fashion 1. Clothing based on utility: protection, warmth 2. Chipped stone tools: scrape the hide off the animal / stripped skins of meat (food) indirect evidence was found that provides an idea of what clothing was like during the Paleolithic Era 3. Skins draped for clothing Would get crusty, so they would beat the skins to make it more malleable they would chew on it 4. Tunics /ponchos 40,000 BCE; they used tools to puncture some holes on shoulders and waist after 1. 2. 3. 9,000 BCE: farming and sheep herding "hunters & gatherers" eyed needle discovered after the first ice age carved out of a tusk/bone; could puncture holes and start stitching prompted making their own textiles--cotton and flax, they would get threads and start sewing 4. early looms As the temperatures got hotter what happened to tunics? they turned into loincloths, much lighter clothing In 10,000 BC, why did they started wearing make up? 1. Bring in spirits from nature (red) 2. Ward off evil spirits (white ash) 3. Sun, transfer of nature’s energy (yellow) 4. Scare enemies (coal) Otzi, the Iceman in 1990s hikers in the Alps found a well preserved frozen man around 3,300 BCE (approximately 5,000 - 7,000 years ago) first direct evidence of clothing Clothing found on Otzi1. Leather belt - holding tools, knife, fire starting kit 2. Loin cloth - over leggings for warmer times 3. Leggings - made of goat leather that was pieced together and tied around the top of the leg down the ankle 4. Shoes - leather woven around sandals stuffed with hay to keep warm 5. Undercoat - coat made of sheepskin that covers the body 6. Capes - made of straw, waterproof and warm, goes over the coat 7. Bearskin hat Part 1: The Ancient World Ch. 2 The Ancient Middle East c. 3500 - 600 B.C. Basic garments common in most cultures Fibula: Pin that was used in holding a garment together (Roman word) Loincloth: Length of cloth wrapped to cover the genitals Tunics: Simple, one piece, and often T-shaped garments with openings for the head and the arms Mesopotamia 1st civilization located in Mesopotamia, between 2 rivers - fertile crescent \ mess (between), potamus (river) The Mesopotamian civilization is credited w/ developing the first curling iron Mesopotamia was involved in considerable trade b/c of its location between two large rivers Climate in the Mediterranean basin was warm, so draped clothing was preferred because it was more comfortable Chief products of Mesopotamia- Barley, wool, and oil. Sources of evidence for Sumerian costume- Depictions on seals, wall paintings, votive statuettes. Linen - The oldest textile, made from flax, found around 7000 BC SUMERIANS 3,000 BCE Founded the first cities in Mesopotamia Invented writing- cuneiform symbols Cylinders that retained records of laws, military victories, medicine and clothing Kaunakes: Sumerian fringed wrapped skirt held in place with wide belts and first made from sheepskin with fleece attached, later made from woven fabrics. Lengths varied and were worn by both men and women. Chignon: Bun of the hair worn by men and women Fillet: a headband that held up the chignon Cloaks from animal skin, heavy felted cloth. Long lengths for royalty Earlier they were either clean-shaven or bearded. After 2300 BC, they are shown only with beards. Royal women wore Elaborate crowns of gold, lapis lazuli, carnelian. BABYLONIANS 2,000 BCE the 360-degree circle 60-minute hour sun/moon eclipses decorative fabrics elaborate shawls FRINGE - added to garments as they were bored with simple tunics Bare feet were common. Higher class wore sandals. Common Jewelry: Dog collar-type chokers made of rings of metal. Kaunakes became assoc. w/ religious figures evolved slowly, gender differences, women covered upper body Soldiers: short tunic, a corselet of mail and a wide belt, helmets, high boots ASSYRIANS 1,500 BCE developed the first great military machine, most hated and feared first armor (leather tunics with plated iron) Fez or tarboosh: men’s high brimless hat shaped like a cone. Kings wore higher and straighter hats. Assyrian leaders adopted Babylonian dress, but added decorations of woven or embroidered patterns. King Sennacherib in 700 BC. introduced cotton to Assyria Replace skirts and draped garments with coat like fringed tunics Royalty wore floor-length tunics beneath long, fringed shawls Men were bearded with both hair and beard arranged in small curls, assumed to have been done with curling iron. The king's beard was longer than all else. Lower-class men wore shorter beards and hair. Footwear: sandals with thicker or thinner soles, the less-common closed shoe, and high boots are worn by horsemen. Jewelry: Earrings, bracelets, and armlets, with decorative motifs like those used in patterned fabric. Covered up women!!! Free, married Assyrian women wore veils. Slaves and prostitutes were not permitted to wear them. Women wore tunics with longer sleeves, in elaborate patterned fabric, and fringed shawls. Sandals and closed shoes. Women’s hairstyles: Earlier, more elaborately arranged, later simpler, shoulder length curly hair. Egypt 3,000BCE - 300BCE Egyptian civilization was mainly along the Nile river, surrounded and protected by deserts and seas. Evidence of Egyptian costume Statutes and carved wall reliefs Art Contents of tombs Actual garments found Egyptian social structure was set up like a pyramid: pharaohs -> deputies -> officials -> scribes -> skilled artisans -> servants Decorative motifs; represented religious figures in jewelry for “good vibes transfer”: Scarab: beetle; rolls itself in a ball and rolls away, symbolized rebirth Uraeus: head piece that has a cobra coming off of it; symbolizes sovereignty, deity., symbol of lower Egypt Eye of Horus: represents the human eye, moon; always done with black Vulture: symbol for upper Egypt Vulture and Cobra: symbol for Unified Egypt CLOTHING: all clothing relates to social status Upper class wore wigs because of heat and bugs they shaved their heads plain clothes but more décor, i.e. jewlery not clothes conscious, but body conscious manicures, clean hands, hairless bodies, make-up cones of scented wax on heads Kohl: A form of eyeliner used not only for aesthetic, but also to keep bugs off MEN Schenti, schent, shent, skent, kilt: Egyptian men's wrapped skirt that went over the loincloth. a piece of fabric was wrapped and folded; could be long or short (long=status); sometimes had pleats that mirrored the sun. Apron: worn over the schenti - a bigger loincloth, attached to waist with a belt shawls or cloaks WOMEN Tunics - looser the tunic on a women, the lower the class beaded dresses Sheath dress or Kalasiris: close fitting tube of fabric beginning above/below breasts and ending around lower calf/ankle. worn by Egyptian women JEWELRY Gold jewelry “flesh of the gods” Pectoral: heavy collar/ necklace across the shoulders; made all in gold has an amulet in the middle Diadem: a crown worn by women. head held flowers Amulet: a pendant in the middle of a pectoral HEADRESSES Nemes: scarf like construction that completely covered the head, fitted across the temple with a lion’s tail on the back Red Crown: Worn my pharaoh of Lower Egypt White Crown: Worn by pharaoh of Upper Egypt Pschent Crown: worn by pharaohs to symbolize rule over lower and upper Egypt; combo of lower and upper crowns Falcon: worn by queens or goddesses Flat Crown: worn by Queen Nerfertiti, over a shaved head Lock of Horus/Lock of Youth: wack af hair do for children of royal family, shaved head with a braided pigtail on one side of the head Differences in Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations Egypt changed slow af over 3000 years since their geographical isolation led to barely being affected by foreign cultures and political influences Egypt had fertile lands Egypt had warm and uniform climate all year long Egypt was less open to trade because of their location Mesopotamia displayed greater diversity over the 3000 yrs Mesopotamia required necessary labor forces, investment of capital and organization of agricultural differences in each region Mesopotamia had hot and cold regions Mesopotamia had periodic foreign invaders w/ many traditions adopted as their own Ch. 3 Crete and Greece c. 2900 - 300 B.C. Crete (3,000 -1400 BCE) Minoans, named after their king, Minos (the keeper of the Minotaur – half man / half bull) Lived on the island of Crete (60 miles off mainland Greece), same time as the Egyptians and Mesopotamians Believed in peace and prosperity, active traders with other countries, maintained political control over Greece Evidence of costume came from statuary and wall paintings discovered in Crete. Dark people with dark curly hair Known for using complex textile decoration techniques, including dyeing, weaving, and painting fabrics They dressed flamboyantly, had lots of color; they decorated clothing with gems. General costume was draped, loose flowing garments, rarely sewn, linen or wool 1,400 BCE - The Myceneans easily invaded and overcame the Minoan people because of a volcanic eruption The Minion civilization disappeared at the beginning of the 13th century, as Greece entered a dark period after being weakened by invasions from the sea and the north. Minoan Costume Hot climate = light clothing Perizoma: continuation of a loincloth, but was worn as an undergarment. Also worn by male and female bull riders Women Similar to the female shape of late 1800’s Parisians Wore complex garments that resembled modern clothing Skirts were draped, sewn, and with full shapes. Had tight belts made of metal they wore since childhood Bell shaped long skirts, some wrapped, some multi-tiered, and some made of sheepskin and fleece Three types of bell shaped skirts; fitted at the waist & flared gently to the ground, another with a series of horizontal or v shaped ruffle, another with a line down the center of the skirt Wore a u shaped apron on top of their skirts for religious rituals Tops were smoothly fitted bodices, laced up, revealing the bosom, with close-fitting sleeves Blouses that were shaped to the body – cut low in front to expose the breasts tight belts made of metal (waist cinchers) – perhaps since early childhood? Men loincloths gathered at the waist; fitted like athletic briefs Skirts were pronounced in front with tassels in the back to balance it out Tunics – depicted in paintings Greece (1450 BC- after 323 BC) Historical periods 1400-1200 BCE: The Mycenaean civilization moved to the mainland aka modern-day Greece. 1200-750 BCE: Dark Age of Greece Written records of time period vanished Some mysterious "Sea People" invaded, pirated and raided towns, devastating the eastern Mediterranean areas, and ruined trade, weakening them. 650-480 BCE: Archaic Period Greek culture revived Villages evolved into city/states 1st type of democratic government 500-323 BCE: Classical Age of Greece (primary focus) philosophy, art, drama, and literature flourished. “A golden age” 2 class social organization democratic society After 323 BCE: Hellenistic period Greek decline in power after death of Alexander the great Status of women rose and so did their nudity in “art” Greek Philosophers Socrates: True knowledge exists in knowing that you know nothing. Aristotle: The whole is more than the sum of its parts. Plato: Only the dead have seen the end of war. Specialized in - weaving, textile, and design Fulling: process whereby wool fabrics are washed and shrunk to produce a dense, close weave. Empire waistline: a method of belting the dress high under the bust line that was copied from the Hellenistic chiom. This style is revived periodically by designers throughout time Greek costume loose and flowing rarely sewn linen and wool Long, flowing hair, would put it up in braids or headbands Sacred Peplos: a magnificently patterned garment is carried to the temple, during religious ceremony that is held every four years, and placed on goddess Athena’s statue. The first women to have worked with wool Peplos: a tube of fabric that's stitched and you step into, and you fold the top over, looks like 2 pieces of fabric Fibula: pin used to pin up clothing, what Greek clothing was based on, puts together clothing Strophion: an early sash (kind of like a belt), binding and thick, moved from the waist up to beneath the breast, would bind breast Zoster: a skinnier sash Himation: rectangular, usually over the left shoulder and under the right; worn over the chiton, super long, draped (not pinned) Diplax: A smaller rectangle of fabric worn by women, draped around the body, similar to a himation. A smaller rectangle of fabric worn by women, draped around the body similar to himation, especially worn over the Ionic chiton Chlamydon: A smaller rectangle of fabric worn by women, similar to a diplax, but pleated to form a band.a smaller rectangle of fabric worn by women, similar to a diplax, but pleated to form a band Chlamys(cloak) & Petasos (hat): A leather or wool rectangular cloak, pinned over one shoulder, worn by men over a chiton, especially for travel as it could also be used as a blanket. Phrygian bonnet: A brimless cap with a high padded peak which fell forward Pilos: narrow-brimmed or brimless hat with a pointed crown, worn by both men and women Chiton: A garment made from a rectangle of fabric, draped around the body and secured with one or more pins and belted at various locations. Evolution of the tunic - TUNIC -> CHITON Types of Chiton (6)1. Doric Peplos: A long, close-fitting women's garment made of patterned wool, fastened at the shoulder with a large straight pin. Archaic period to 550 bc 2.Chitoniskos: A short, close-fitting men's garment made of patterned wool, usually short between hip and thigh length, fit close to the body. 3.Doric: A narrow, sleeveless garment, fastened at the shoulder with a single fibula, made of wool, linen, or silk. Women wore these long, men wore them short. Women wore these earlier in history than men. Mostly seen on sculptures, one piece of fabric, open on one side, folded on the other, and belted with an open fold 4.Ionic: A full, long-sleeved garment, fastened at the shoulders with many small brooches, made of lightweight wool or pleated linen. Worn by both men and women, although the men's were sometimes shorter and worn earlier in history than women.2 pieces pinned at the shoulders to the wrists making sleeves 5.Hellenistic: like the doric but there is more blousing at the waist. A long, very narrow, women's garment, fastened at the shoulders and often belted just below the bosom. Made of lightweight wool, linen, or silk. 6, Exomis: A short, working men or slave's garment, fastened over one shoulder, made of sturdy material such as wool Mycenean Soldiers Wore above the knee tunics edged with fringe, long sleeves for protection with a lot of fabric designs Had helmets w/ polka dots, crests, horns, plumes, masks Greaves: shin guards attached to sandals Cuirass: Classical period military; close-fitting, shaped body armor, for common soldier would be leather Sandals with laces Wedding dress Hercules Knot: knot that was unbreakable, binding; worn by women on their wedding day Stephane or bridal crown: placed over the veil Anakalypteria: the ritual unveiling of the bride during the ceremony Nymphides: special sandals the bride wore Chlanis: a tunic the bride presents the groom with, that she woven herself. It symbolizes her mastery of an essential housewife skill Ch.4 Etruria & Rome (800 BCE - 400 BCE) Etruria (750-200 BC) early Roman civilization made up of several independent city states, relative sexual equality, strong agricultural base, small amount of documents-paper disintegrated, skilled leather crafts. Towns were developed on the Italian peninsula & influenced by the Greek Through trade Greek goods appeared in Etruria and the style of dress grew similar to the Greeks Etruscan territory stretched to present day Venice Left abundant records of their lives through wall paints, statues, and in objects placed in the elaborate “NECROPOLI” aka grave cities, but unlike Egyptians, not much was preserved Great wealth of the Etruscans could be attributed to the planting of vineyards and olive groves, as well as mining and smelting iron, exploited deposits of copper and traded throughout the Mediterranean – especially with Greece. Etruscans: Influenced Roman culture (dominant by 650 BCE) Pre-Roman people who migrated into Italy from Africa, Sicily, Spain, France, the Danube region By about 800 BC they had developed a culture that was superior in skills and artistic production, and more complex in organization, than the culture of the neighboring tribes. *GREEK to ETRUSCANS to ROME* Olympian gods clothing olive & grape cultivation architecture Costume components for men and women Perizoma: loincloth that was worn alone as an outer garment by laborers and other physically active men (similar to Minoans and Greeks). When worn as an undergarment, it was placed under a short, shirt like chiton or a slightly longer chiton called a tunic. Tebenna: rounded mantle worn by men and women. Woven with curved edges in a roughly semicircular or elliptical form and worn draped 1. Like a chlamys 2. Worn back to front with the curved edge hanging in front and the two ends thrown back over the shoulder 3. Like a himation STYLE POINTS Etruscan dress draws upon: Crete, Greek and the Near East They revel in vivid colors, polka dots, exotic prints or even almost plaids Clavi – decorative borders Men wear tunics or chitons while women wear more form fitting garments *GREEK to ETRUSCANS to ROME* Greeks: Chitons, Chalmys, Perizoma Etruscans: Chitons, Tebenna, Perizoma Romans: Togas, Paenula, Lacerna, Birrus,, Paludamentum, Subligar Hair and headdress Men in Archaic period had medium length hair and pointed beards; in post Archaic period hair was short and faces were clean shaven. Women during Archaic period had either a braid in the back or arranged their hair in flowing tresses; in post Archaic period their hairstyles were like the Greeks Tutulus: A high-crowned, small-brimmed hat worn by the Etruscans; in ancient Rome, referred to a special hairstyle where th...
View Full Document

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture