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Assignment 12.1Chapter 24: Structure and Function of the Reproductive System1. Estrogen:Estrogenis a generic term for three similar hormones: estradiol, estrone, and estriol. Estrogen has numerous biologic effects, many of which involve interactions with other hormones, and is needed for maturation of the reproductive organs, as well as the development of secondary sex characteristics, closure of long bones after the pubertal growth spurt, regulation of the menstrual cycle, and endometrial regeneration after menstruation. Estrogen also has metabolic effects on the bones, liver, blood vessels, brain and central nervous system, kidneys, and skin. Estrogens are derived from cholesterol in a complex, enzyme-mediated series of reactions just like other steroid hormones (Workbook p. 118).2. Menarche:Menarche is your first menstruation or menses. Menarche appears to be related to body weight, especially percentage of body fat, which may trigger a change in the metabolic rate and lead to hormonal changes associated with early menarche. The mean age of menarche has declined over the last century, but the magnitude of the decline and the factors responsible remain subjects of contention. Menarche occurs at different ages and it signals the possibility of fertility in girls. (Workbook p. 118).3. Luteinizing Hormone:Luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary stimulates the corpus luteum to secrete progesterone,the second major female sex hormone. LH surge occurs when there is a peak level of estrogen, about 24 to 36 hours before ovulation. LH promotes luteinization of the granulosa in
the dominant follicle and results in progesterone production and the development of blood vessels and connective tissue. Estrogen causes cells of the endometrium to proliferate and stimulates production of LH (Workbook p. 121).4. Adrenarche:Adrenarcheis the increased production of adrenal androgens prior to puberty, which occurs in both sexes. Adrenarche also representsgrowth of axillary and pubic hair and other physiologic changes induced by hyperactivity of the suprarenal cortex and adrenocortical secretion of androgenic hormones in early puberty. Premature adrenarche tends to occur between 5 and 8 years of age. Adrenarche is a process related to puberty, but distinct from hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal maturation and function (Workbook p. 118).5. Endometrium:The endometrium is one of the layers in the uterine wall. The endometrium,or uterine lining, is composed of a functional layer and a basal layer. Thefunctional layer of the endometrium is responsive to sex hormones. Progesterone secreted by the corpus luteum stimulates the thickenedendometrium to become more complex in preparation for implantation of a blastocyst (Workbook p. 120).Chapter 25: Alterations of the Female Reproductive System:1. Leiomyomas:Leiomyomas, commonly called myomasor uterine fibroids are benign smooth muscle tumors in the myometrium. Leiomyomas are the most common benign tumorsof the uterus, affecting as many as 70% to 80% of all women,