hist 103 lecture.pdf - Intro Lecture September 8 2014...

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Intro Lecture September 8 2014 Terminology Short 20 th century: 1914-end of communism (1991) or 2000 Long 20 th century: few decades before WWI – those decades are essential to understand decolonization and empires World history: slightly older, often divided into continents Global history: generally more modern, connects/links what is happening in different countries ***local, regional, global Late 19-century: Many empires – different than today a. Ottoman – one of the oldest (1453) o Blocked trade routes, leading to Exploration o Decline – due to imperialism, expansion of other empires late 19 th century, revolutions (Greece, etc.) o Joined German side in WWI, so split up o Many countries: Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, etc.
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b. Qajar Dynasty = Iran o ended in 1929 (coup) o Britain and Russia involved c. Qing (Ching) Dynasty = China and Mongolia o 1644-1911 (fell to internal revolt)
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d. Empires in Africa o Zulu, Ashanti, Sokoto o Many before European colonialism in late 19 th century o Resisted imperialism but were conquered
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e. British Empire o most global of all o in South Asia – extensive – India, Pakistan, Sri Lana, Burma, Bangladesh
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f. Europe – Russia, Germany, Austro-Hungary, Dutch, Portugal, France g. Caribbean – conquered by France, Britain, Dutch, etc. ** most empires were in decline - Japan, US, Germany were ascending in power o bureaucracy o military power overseas o violence - They were called imperial states o Both nation and empire o Prestige, respect, economic factors, capitalism o Incorporated imperial subjects into armies o Industrialization – exporting goods o Taxation on imperial subjects Inequality in empires – taxes and work, no rights
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Intro Lecture (continued) September 15 2014 g. Caribbean o Spain: Cuba, Puerto Rico – until US-Spanish war (Philippines to US too)  part of rise of US empire o Many territories belonging to Dutch, French, Britain from Age of Exploration h. Latin America o didn’t undergo same decolonization as Africa/Asia in 20 th century o most achieved independence between 1810s and 1820s due to impact of Napoleonic Wars on Spain o British Honduras, British Guiana, Suriname (late 20 th century) 1888-1889 (Starting point of course) 1888 – end of Brazilian empire (didn’t hold colonies, took territory from indigenous peoples) o slavery existed until 1888 (the King said no more slavery) o last territory in West to have slavery
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o ruled by King (like many empires) o Pedro II (last King) wanted to eliminate slavery, his daughter signed bill o End of slavery in West was drawn-out process (Britain 1804 to Brazil 1888) *** like US empire, with westward expansion, taking from indigenous people and Mexico) End of slavery timeline in Brazil - 1850 : Brazil govt outlawed slave trade from Africa o over the decades, the number of slaves decreased - 1871 : slave women with children, children were free o certain territories still had lots (Rio, Sao Paolo) with old plantation owners o new plantation owners realized slavery wasn’t going to work
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