157074_JEREMY BENTHAM UTILITARIANISM.pptx - Utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham \u2022 \u2022 \u2022 \u2022 \u2022 \u2022 Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is one of the bridges

157074_JEREMY BENTHAM UTILITARIANISM.pptx - Utilitarianism...

This preview shows page 1 - 5 out of 14 pages.

Utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham
Image of page 1
Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is one of the bridges between jurisprudence and philosophy. The part of philosophy in which utilitarianism lies is Ethics. Ethics is defined' the 'science of moral in human conduct', science due to its sense of 'organised body of knowledge on a subject'. Ethics determines whether absolute standards of right and wrong exist; i f they do, whether it is possible to know what they are ; and, if so, how we are to know what they ar e; and, second, i f such standards do exist, and we can know them , what, specifically, they are. The first branch of the subject, which is termed metaethics , thus deals with the nature and knowability of ethical standards . It considers what we mean when we say that one thing is good and another is bad . It considers whether such statements have any meaning at all. This branch of ethics is concerned with whether rules or standards of human conduct are prescribed and, if so, by what means.
Image of page 2
The second aspect of ethics is termed normative ethics . It is concerned with what constitutes good conduct; with the p rinciples that should govern and direct the conduct of individual humans , and of human affairs . During the twentieth century a third branch of ethics emerged - the examination of how ethical principles that have general acceptance are to be applied in such real life situations as where a doctor is faced with the decision whether to facilitate the death of a grossly malformed baby; or with a patient in the terminal stages of cancer who requests that his life should be brought to an end, i.e. euthanasia. Here the layman turns to the philosopher and says, 'You are the expert. You know about ethics. What's the answer? What is the right thing to do?' The philosopher replies, 'Let me refer you to a book of mine on the subject'. Many such books have appeared - on medical ethics , legal ethics, environmental ethics, the ethics of war, the ethics of discrimination.
Image of page 3
Pleasures and Pains Bentham undertakes an elaborate analysis of pleasures and pains. Pleasures are of the following kinds. 1. Pleasures of sense (taste and the satisfaction of hunger and thirst; intoxication; smell; touch; hearing; seeing; sex; health; gratification of curiosity). 2. Pleasures of wealth (the pleasure of acquisition and of possession). 3. Pleasures of skill. 4. Pleasures of amity (being on good terms with others).
Image of page 4
Image of page 5

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture