The Formation of Nationalist Consciousness - Ilustrados: wanted representation of Filipinos in the Spanish Cortes (Assembly). They are not for Independence, not anti-colonial, wanted the same right with the Spaniards. - Propaganda: Journalism (no violence for reform) - In Europe, the French revolution shifted monarchy to modern state sovereignty (power sharing) - Liberalism rising in Europe - Opening of the Suez Canal: (1) shortcut to the Philippines, (2) facilitated the entry of Liberalism in the Philippines, (3) route for intellectual exchange – ideas in Europe reached the Philippines How did the Suez Canal lead to Liberalism? People access education in Europe and European ideas reached the Philippines promoting Liberalism. Additional: Panama Canal – more technologically advance than Suez Canal What conditions led to liberalism in the Philippines? Spain in the Philippines: 1. Not efficient colonizers 2. The longevity of the Spaniards in the Philippines reflects their ability to suppress the resistances. 3. Spain had no long-term plans for the Philippines America in the Philippines: better colonizers than the Spaniards Types of Resistances 1. Nativistic – anti-Spanish; clamoring to return to the indigenous order 2. Millenarian Movements (New Movement) – anti-Spanish; combine indigenous element with Catholicism; Millenarians promised alternative order through the ideas of Euthopian (Ideal Society), Apocalyptic (The End is Near) Ex: Apolinario dela Cruz (Tayabas, Quezon) - establishd the Tagalog Republic; “ Hermano Pule” was refused to enter priesthood so he established Confradia de San Jose where he claimed he was the brother of Jesus Christ Ex: armed by wearing of Amulets (anting-anting) would attack the Spanish garrison Ex: Rizalista 3. Reform Movement – Rizal; Ilustrados Propaganda Movement – Journalism to attack Spain 4. Revolution – Bonifacio Interpretations of the Revolution Nation – sense of belonging State – machinery to run the government “Imagine a nationhood despite of having no sense of belonginess” - nationhood through collective oppression and resistance (through the Katipunan) - According to Rizal, the Filipino Nation (Maria Makiling) was not present/ no figure Are we a nation in the 1800s?: Approve or Dissaprove? Nationalist perspective of History: 1. Process of becoming a nation 2. Revolution as a centerpiece Idea: Colonialism caused our Nationalism - In the Philippines, state (we were unified) preceded nation (we realized we had commonalities). - Colonialism was instrumental in the construction of the state and nation Recent Perspectives of the Revolution I. Which Revolution? 1896 – Cry of Balintawak (Bonifacio – proletariat) Bonifacio: proletariat because he was an orphan but his stepfather is a gobernadorcillo.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 6 pages?