BIOCHEM Phase 1 Notes.txt - PHASE 1 Biochemistry chemical...

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PHASE 1 Biochemistry - chemical processes in living organisms, same occur in inanimated molecules SHOULD KNOW: every organelle and it's function - the cell and its organelles are surrounded by membranes that share a basic composition: the phospholipid bilayer - phospholipids slightly different from organelle to organelle A phospholipid is a molecule of GLYCEROL esterified with 2 fatty acids and 1 substituted phosphate. The fatty acids have between 12 (lauric) and 20 (eicosanoic) carbons in even numbers, saturated or cis- unsaturated. When glycerol is esterified with 3 fatty acids it becomes a storage lipid or TRIGLYCERIDE - glycerol is simply propan-tri-ol, propantriol, or a propane with three OH groups, one on each carbon - ethanoic acid is acetic acid - ESTER is formed by combination of an alcohol and an acid - the type of acid used to esterify glycerol determines the properties of the resulting triglyceride Phospholipids are free to move inside the membrane. They hold together by hydrophobic interaction between nonpolar tails. This freedom allows membrane to enlarge or shrink by adding or removing individual phospholipids - H bonding occurs between the nonpolar hydrophobic molecules, stronger than other intermolecular forces - towel dries using H-bonding, and only heat can overcome the towel-water bond The NUCLEAR ENVELOPE is a two phospholipid bilayer (double membrane). The outer layer is continuous with the cytoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum. The two bilayers come together at regularly spaced NUCLEAR PORES. The cytoplasmic face of the pores has 8 filaments and the nuclear face has a complex ring that forms a basket - pore allows free diffusion of ions and small molecules while controlling the passage of proteins and RNA-protein complexes made in the nucleoli Cytoplasm - the region of the cell not enclosed by organelles Cytosol - liquid that is part of cytoplasm RBCs can use glucose only as a source, brain can use lipids or glucose - brain uses the most energy, as well as the most oxygen of any organ in the body - when you intake glycogen, the weight doubles or triples because of bonded water In eukaryotes, DNA is divide into multiple linear chromosomes that with proteins form a complex structure called CHROMATIN Lots of genes encoding rRNA are clustered with rRNA and proteins in dark areas in the nucleus called NUCLEOLI Large + small ribosomal subunits are made in nucleolus then moved through nuclear pores into cytoplasm, where they form ribosomes Largest internal membrane is the ER. In eukaryotes, - inner region is called cisternal space or LUMEN, outer region is cytosol, fluid in cytoplasm - Rough ER is (RER) crowded with ribosomes that make proteins for export to Golgi apparatus for further modification - these proteins can be tagged with small chains of carbs to form glycoproteins
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and packaged into vesicles that go to the Golgi app - glycoproteins because carbs can have enantiomers (non superimposable mirror images) which allows them to guide proteins
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