Chapter 1 Definitions, History, and Development of Community Corrections
Community Corrections All non-incarcerating correctional sanctions imposed upon an offender for the purposes of reintegrating that offender within the community 3
Alternatives Provided by Community Corrections Front-End Probation Back-End Parole The purpose of each is to ease crowding in prison 4
Early Alternative Sanctions: Sanctuary Secular based: self-selected banishment Regions would have designated cities where those accused could live to escape punishment Religious based: Refuge until negotiation could be arranged Designed for members of the clergy (priests, nuns, monks etc) Biblical references to sanctuary 5
Early Alternative: Benefit of Clergy Originally implemented for members of various churches. Church’s attempt to thwart the authoritative efforts of King Henry II. Power struggle between the king and the Holy Roman Catholic Church in England Religious beliefs controlled behavior when the king could not 6
Early Alternative: Benefit of Clergy By the 14th century, it had been made available to all who were literate. Literate people were wealthier while the illiterate were poor and vulnerable to a harsh sentencing structure Required that the offender read the text of Psalm 51 out loud. 7
Early Alternative Sanctions: Judicial Reprieve Late 1700’s Reprieve, retains liberties and freedoms.
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- Fall '17
- Geography, criminal law, Alexander Maconochie