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Chapter1Transparencies - CHAPTER 1 THINKING CRITICALLY...

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CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT PSYCHOLOGY I – LIMITS TO INTUITION AND COMMONSENSE Hindsight bias : “I knew it all along.” Prediction not as good as post-diction (after the fact). Overconfidence effect : More often confident than correct. We think we know more than we do know. Inaccurate in predicting our own behavior. II – THE SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE Curious Skepticism & Humility : Show me the evidence! Critical thinking : Examine assumptions, discern hidden values, evaluate evidence, and assess conclusions. III – THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD: A self-correcting process for asking questions and making observations. Theory : An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations. Hypothesis : A testable prediction based on theory or observations. O perational definition : How the concept/idea will be measured: a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. Replication : Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding are generalizable. IV – TYPES OF RESEARCH METHODS DESCRIPTIVE METHODS/RESEARCH: focus on describing a phenomenon using objective, systematic observations. Case studies : One person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles. Issues : Case may not be representative; anecdotes can overwhelm and mislead. Survey : A method used in both descriptive and correlational research for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them. 1
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Issues : Wording effects (censor vs. restrict); Sampling (e.g., false consensus effect - the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors; population - all the cases in a group from which samples may be drawn for a study; random sample - a sample that fairly represents a population because each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample; salient (attention-getting) instances can bias conclusions).
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