Chapter3Transparencies - CHAPTER 3: THE NATURE AND NURTURE...

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I – GENES: The biochemical units of heredity (blueprint) that make up chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein and thus determining our biology. C hromosomes : Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes. DNA (DeoxyriboNucleicAcid) : A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes. (A DNA molecule has two strands—forming a “double helix”—held together by bonds between pairs of nucleotides.) Genome : The complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in its chromosomes. The human genome has 3 billion weakly bonded pairs of nucleotides (ACTG) organized as coiled chains of DNA. II – EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY: The study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection. N atural selection : The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations. Mutation : A random error in gene replication that leads to a change in the sequence of nucleotides ; the source of genetic diversity. Sexuality : Gender: The characteristics, whether biologically or socially influenced, by which people define male and female. Men>women in sexual interest and behavior. Parental investment is lower for males than females, favoring a “pairing widely” strategy. Universally, males focus more on a potential mate’s appearance (health and fertility) and women focus more on a potential mate’s resources and co-parenting characteristics (dependability). Men’s reckless behavior is to get attention. Critique of Evolutionary Explanation : Works backward from behavior (hindsight, post-hoc); can often and equally well explain the opposite behavior (monogamy); ignores cultural influences (e.g., attractiveness, appropriate sexual behavior). Biology is not destiny! 1
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Chapter3Transparencies - CHAPTER 3: THE NATURE AND NURTURE...

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