Chapter4Transparencies - CHAPTER 4 THE DEVELOPING PERSON I...

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CHAPTER 4: THE DEVELOPING PERSON I – PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE NEWBORN Developm e ntal psychology . A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span. Conception . Ovary releases a mature egg (size of a period “.”); 200 million or more sperm deposited during intercourse; woman is born with all the immature eggs she will ever have; only 1 in 5000 mature and are released; man begins producing sperm cells at puberty and continues 24 hours/day for the rest of his life at 1000 sperm/second, but rate slows with age. Egg is 85,000 times larger than sperm; sperm that make it to the egg release digestive enzymes that eat away the egg’s protective coating, allowing a sperm to penetrate; egg’s surface then blocks other sperm and fingerlike projections sprout around the successful sperm and pull it in. Within 12 hours the egg nucleus and the sperm nucleus fuse to form the zygote – 9 months later a 100 trillion cell person emerges. Prenatal development . Fewer than half of all fertilized eggs, called ZYGOTES (fertilization to 2 weeks) survive beyond the first 2 weeks; within the first week, when cell division has produced a zygote of about 100 cells, the cells began to differentiate —to specialize in structure and function. About 10 days after conception, some cells attach to the mother’s uterine wall forming the placenta, through which nourishment passes. The inner cells become the EMBRYO (2 weeks to 8 weeks). During the next 6 weeks organs begin to form and function (e.g., heart beats and liver makes red blood cells). FETUS (9 weeks to birth) looks human. Can survive outside uterous at 6 months – can hear and prefer mother’s voice TERATOGENS. Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) . Small, misproportioned head and lifelong brain abnormalities; leading cause of mental retardation; 4 in 10 alcoholic mothers The NEWBORN . Reflexes present at birth that facilitate survival and social contact Rooting (touch on check turns head toward touch) Turn head toward to human voices Prefer face-like images (gaze longer at) 1
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Prefer 8-10” away (nursing distance) Prefer mother’s smell (breast milk) Research strategies for studying newborns Habituation : Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation (gaze, sucking, head turn). Novelty preference: Renewed interest in novel stimuli – reveals infants’ sensory discrimination abilities. II – INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD Maturation . A biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience. Brain Development In utero – ¼ million brain cells formed/minute; 23 billion at birth Birth – all the brain cells you will ever have, but immature. Birth-3 – rapid development of neural networks for walking, talking, and
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Chapter4Transparencies - CHAPTER 4 THE DEVELOPING PERSON I...

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