Chapter8Transparencies

Chapter8Transparencies - CHAPTER 8 - LEARNING Learning: A...

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CHAPTER 8 - LEARNING Learning : A relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience. Associative learning : Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning). Observational learning : Learning by observing other’s behavior and its consequences. I – BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BEHAVIORISM Behaviorism : the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2). Classical conditioning : A type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian conditioning . Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) : A stimulus that unconditionally - naturally and automatically - triggers a response. Unconditioned response (UCR ) : The unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), such as salivation when food is in the mouth. Conditioned stimulus (CS) in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), comes to trigger a conditioned response. Conditioned response (CR) in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus (CS). Acquisition : The initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response. Extinction : The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a
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Chapter8Transparencies - CHAPTER 8 - LEARNING Learning: A...

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