Chapter10Transparencies - CHAPTER 10 THINKING AND LANGUAGE...

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Cognition : The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. Concept : A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people. Prototype : A mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin). I – SOLVING PROBLEMS Algorithm : A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier—but also more error-prone—use of heuristics. Heuristic : A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms . Insight : A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions. II – OBSTACLES TO SOLVING PROBLEMS Confirmation bias : A tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions. Fixation : The inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective. Mental set : A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem; like Perceptual set – predisposes what we perceive. Functional fixedness : A tendency to perceive the functions of objects as fixed and unchanging. III – MAKING DECISIONS AND FORMING JUDGEMENTS Using and Misusing Heuristics Representativeness heuristic : Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information. 1
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2008 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Jackson during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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Chapter10Transparencies - CHAPTER 10 THINKING AND LANGUAGE...

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